Skip to main content

Full text of "A guide to Taxila"

See other formats

QforttcU HntuErBitg iCihrarg 

Stifnta, ^eu) ^artt 

-H.-D-.- G-r IS vv<3 Id. 

Date Due 

PFi.. ! H 


imc n 7 




'"^11 ,- iiif*' 




Cornell University Library 
DS 486.T3M359 

3 1924 024 121 125 



Hi'iAij (iF J>iiL\ysr.<. siJ;KAl'. 



Sir JOHN MARSHALL, kt., c.i.e,, m.a., 

Litt.D., F.S.A., Hon.A.R.I.B.A., ETC., 
Director General of Archeology In India 




■Price Rs. 3 or 4s. 63. 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


Chapter fAOE 


Location of Taxila 4nd character of country 
in ancient times, 1 ; Bliij? mound, 3 ; 
Sirkap, 4 ; Babar Khana or Kaohcha 
Kot, 5 ; Sirsukh, 6 ; Monuments outside 
the cities, 6. 

II. — History 8 

Persian Empire, 8 ; Alexander the Great, 9 ; 
Seleuous Nicato:, 10 ; Maurya Empire, 11. 
Bactrian Greeks, 11 ; Scythians and 
Parthians, 1 2 ; Apollonius of Tyana, 
14 ; Hermans and the Knshans, 16 ; 
Dep-truction by the Huns, 17 ; Hsiian 
Tsang, 17; Modern explorations, 18; 
Chronology of important events connected 
with Taxila, 20. 

III.— Abt 23 

Achsemenian, 23 ; Mauryan, 24 ; Greek, 
Scythio and Parthian, 25 ; Gandharan, 30 ; 
Influence of Greek Art in India, 32. 


Chaptee Page 

IV. — The Dhaemaeajxka SitrPA . . . .35 
The main structure, 37 ; small circular 
stupas around the main structure, 39 ; 
Circle of small chapels, 41 ; Consecu- 
tive types of masonry, 42 ; Blinor anti- 
quities from chapels round Main Stiipa, 43 ; 
Stiipa Ji, -14 ; Stupa J^, 45 ; Stupas 
N='-", 46; Chapels N" and N", 46; 
Stupa N', 47 ; Buildings P and V^ 48 ; 
Tank, 48; Stupas K' and P', 48; 
Stupa K', 49 ; View of the site and the 
surrounding country, 49 ; Building H', 50 ; 
Two pits MS 51 ; Chapels G'-s, 51 ; 
Inscription of the year 136, 52 ; Chapel 
R^, 54 ; Building L, 55 ; Apsidal temple 
l\ 55 ; Chapels E and F\ 57. 

V. — Sttjfa of Kunala 59 

Identification of the stupa, 69 ; Description, 
61 ; Monastery, 64. 

VI.— SlKKAP 65 

City wall, 65 ; Palace, 66 ; Plan of 
houses, 70 ; Shrine in Block G, 73 ; 
Shrine of the double-headed eagle in block 
F, 73 ; Aramaic Inscription, 75 ; Minor 
antiquities of Sirkap, 76 ; Jewellery from 
House E, 77 ; from chamber C^^, 77 ; 
from north side of Central Courtyard, 80 : 
Apsidal temple D, 81 ; Stiipa Court A, 83 ; 
City Gate, 84. 


Chaptbb Page 

VII. — Jandial 86 

Temple, 86 ; Stupaa and monastery in 
Mound B, 92 ; Stupa A, 93. 

VIII. — SiBSUKH, Lalchak and Badalpur . . . 9i 
Position of Sirsukh, 9i ; Siraukh fortifica- 
tions, 91 ; Tofkian, 96 ; Lalchak, 98 ; 
Buddhist stiipa and Monastery, 98 ; Stupa 
I, 100 ; Stupa 11, 101 ; Badalpur, 101. 

IX. — MOHEA MORADU, JaULIAN, ETC. . . . 103 

Position of Mohra Moradu, 103 ; Stupa 
I, 101; Stupa II, 103; Monastery, 106; 
JauKaf), 110; Stiipa Courts, 111; 
Monastery, 113 ; Bhallar Stupa, 115; Bhir 
mound, 117. 

Short BiBLtoGRAPHY with abbbevtations . . ,119 
Glossary ......... 121 


„ Facing 


[.—Head of Dionysus, Sirkap . . Frontispiece 

II.— Coins ....... 24 

III.— Coins 28 

IV. — Plan of the Dharmarajika Stupa . . 36 

V. — Consecutive types of masonry . . .42 
VI. — Dharmarajika Stupa : (a — d) Terracotta and 

stucco heads . . . . . .44 

VII. — Dharmarajika Stupa : Silver scroll inscription 

and transcript . . . . . .5? 

VIII. — Dharmarajika Stupa : Gandhara reUefs : (a) 
Offering to Buddha after his enlightenment ; 
(b) The first sermon . . . .56 

IX. — View of the Dharmarajika Stupa from North 58 

X. — View of the Kuuala Stupa from N.-W. . 60 

XI. — Sirkap : Plan of Palace . . . .68 

XII. — Sirkap : View of shrine of the double-headed 

eagle ....... 74 

XIII. — (a) Sirkap : Aramaic Inscription ; (6) Jaulian : 

Stupa casket . . . . .76 

XIV. — Sirkap : Plan of Houses E and F and Apsidal 

temple D foil. PI. 

XV. — Sirkap : Figure of Harpocrates . . .78 
XVI. — Sirkap : Jewellery from House E and other 

objects foil. PI, 




Platk page 

XVII.— (ff.) Sirkap : Jewellery . . . .80 

(6) Ditto. 
XVIII.— Jandial Temple : Plan . . . .86 
XIX. — View of Jandial Temple . . . .88 
XX. — View of Lalchak Monastery . . . 100 
XXI. — General view of Mohra Moradu Monastery . 104 
XXII.— Mohra Moradu : Relief on Stupa I . .106 
XXIII. — Mohra Moradu Monastery : Stupa in Cell . 108 
XXIV. — Mohra Moradu Monastery : Gandhara sculp- 
ture 110 

XXV. — Excavations at Jaulian : Plan . . .112 
XXVI. — Jaulian : General view of Stupa Courts foil. PI. 


XXVII. — Jaulian : Relief in niche . . . .114 

XXVIIL— View of Bhallar Stupa . . . .116 

XXIX.— Map of Tasila 120 




The remains of Tasila are situated immediately Location of 
to the east and north-east of Sarai-lvala, a junction Taxila and 
ou the railway, twenty miles north-west of Rawal- country in 
pindi.^ The valley in which they lie is a singularly ancient times. 
pleasant one, well-watered by the Haro river and its 
tributaries, and protected by a girdle of hills — ou the 
north and east by the snow momitains of Hazara and 
the Murree ridge, on the south and west by the well- 
known Margalla spur and other lower eminences. This 
position on the great trade route, which used to connect 
Hindustan with Central and AVestern Asia, coupled 

1 There are good refreshment and waiting rooms for travcllera 
at Sarai-kala railway station, and a small Public Works' bungalow 
about a mile distant, permission to occupy which niay sometimes 
be obtained from the Executive Engineer, Rawalpindi District. 
Less than half a mile from the station is the Archscological Office, 
where information can be obtained regarding the excavations. 
The building of the local museum, which is contemplated for Taxila, 
has had to be postponed for the present, but by the courtesy of the 
Director General visitors are allowed, during the time that excava- 
tions arc actually in progress, to see the antiquities in the 
storerooms at the Arohaiological Bungalow. Excavations are 
carried on only in the autumn and spring. 



with the strength of its natural defences, the fertility of 
its soil, and a constant supply of good water, readily 
account for the importance of the city in early times. 
Arrian speaks of it as being a great and flourishing 
city in the time of Alexander the Great, the greatest, 
indeed, of all the cities which lay between the Indus 
and the Hydaspes (Jihlam).^ Strabo tells us that 
the country round about was thickly populated, and 
extremely fertile, as the mountains here begin to 
subside into the plains, ^ and Plutarch^ remarks on the 
richness of the soil. Hsiian Tsang,* also, writes 
in a similar strain of the laud's fertility, of its rich 
harvests, of its flowing streams and of its luxuriant 

From the map on Plate XXIX it mil be seen that 
stretching across this tract of country, from north- 
east by east to south-west by west, is a ridge of hills 
of which the western termination is called Hathial. 
This ridge of hills is a rocky and precipitous spur of 
limestone formation, which projects into the valley 
from the mountains on the East, and divides the 
eastern part of it into two halves. The northern half 
is now-a-days siugxilaiiy rich in crops, being watered 
by numerous artificial canals taken off from the higher 
reaches of the Haro river ; the southern half is less 
fertile, being intersected by many deep ravines and 
broken by bare stony knolls, on many of which are 
ruins of old-time stupas and monasteries. Through 

1 Bk. V, Cb. 3. Cf. McCrindlc, The invasion of India by Alexander 
Ihe Great, p. 92. 

a Bk. XV, Ch. 28. MoCrindle, Ancient India, p. 33. 

2 Ch. LIX. 

* Waiters, On Yuan Chuiang, Vol, I, p. 240. 


this part of the valley and skirting the western foot 
of the Hathial hill runs the Tabra or Tamra nala, 
which is manifestly identical with the stream called 
Tiberonabo, Tiberoboam, or Tiberio-potamos referred 
to by classical authors. ^ Through the northern half 
of the valley flows the Lundi nala, another tributary 
of the Haro river, which like the Tamra nala now 
runs in a deep bed, but in old days, no doubt, was 
nearer the surface. 

Within this valley and within three and a half Bm? Mound. 
miles of each other are the remains of three distinct 
cities. The southernmost of these occupies an elevated 
plateau, knowai locally as the Bhir mound, between 
the recently opened railway from Sarai-kala to Havelian 
and the Tamra nala, above the bed of which it rises 
to a lieight of between 60 and 70 feet. From north to 
south this plateau measures about 1,210 yards and from 
east to west, at its oddest point, about 730. On its 
western and southern sides its boundaries follow a 
fairly regular line, but on the cast and north they 
sweep along the edges of the ba)'s and blufis above 
the Tamra nala, and in some of these bays, where 
the soil has been washed down into the ravine below, 
it is no longer possible to trace with accuracy the 
original position of the walls. According to local 
tradition, the Bhir mound is the most ancient of all 
the sites at Taxila, and this tradition is fully con- 
firmed by the discoveries which I have made on the 
surface of the mound. Gen. Cunningham was of 
opinion that this city was still in occupation at the 

1 Cf. Sylvain Levi, J. A., Tome XV (8mo Serie), pp. 23U-7, 
and MoCriudle, Ancient India, pp. 342-3. 


time of Hsiian Tsang's visit in the 7th century A.D., 
but this opinion appears to have rested on no surer 
ground than his own speculations as to the identity 
of a ruined stiipa in the region of Babarlihana with 
the stupa of the ' Head gift ' described by the Chinese 
pilgrim, which, as we shall presently see, has proved 
to be erroneous. It is certainly not borne out by 
existing remains, which indicate that the Bhir mound 
Was occr^pied as a city many centuries prior to the 
coming of the Greeks, and that the capital was 
transferred by them in the early part of the 2nd 
century B.C. to the area now known as Sirkap. 

SiKKAP. This second city of Birkap, of which almost the 
entire outer wall is still clearly visible, occupies the 
western spurs of the hill of Hathial, together with a 
well-defined plateau on their northern side. On the 
western edge of this plateau the city wall has an 
irregular alignment broken by various salients and 
recesses, but on the north and east it is quite straight, 
and from the south-east corner of the plateau it pro- 
ceeds in the same straight line up the steep side of the 
northern ridge of Hathial, then drops across a valley, 
traverses a second ridge and depression, and so ascends 
to the summit of the third and highest ridge on the 
south. From this point it turns in a westerly direction 
and descends the rocky edge of the ridge to its western 
corner ; after which it takes a sharp turn to the north, 
and bends west again around a prominent blufi above 
the Tanira nala, and so returns north along the western 
face of the plateau. Within its circuit the city wall 
thus takes in three rocky and precipitous ridges of 
the Hathial spur, besides an isolated flat-topped hill, 


which rises in a gradual slope from the bluff above 
referred to, and the whole of the level plateau to their 
north. The length of this wall is approximately 
6,000 yards, its thickness varying from 15 ft. to 21 ft. 
6 in. Throughout its whole length both the core and 
facing of the wall are composed of rubble stones of no 
great size or stability, the construction being in all 
respects similar to that of other structures of the Greek 
and Saka-Pahlava epochs, and, like them, liable to 
fall rapidly to ruin. The outer curtain of the wall 
is streng-thened by bastions which, so far as they have 
been examined, are rectangular in plan (p. 65). 

To judge by its position and configuration, it seems 
probable that the isolated flat-topped hill mentioned 
above was the real Akropolis of the ancient city 
of Sirkap ; but it is hkely that the whole of the area 
comprised within the Hathial ridges and between 
them and this hill was also specially fortified to serve 
as a place of refuge in case of siege. To this end an 
inner line of fortifications appears to have been carried 
along the north side of the Akropohs, as well as along 
the base of the northern ridge of Hathial, the only 
access to the interior fort being provided by a gateway 
in the depression between the two hills. Gen. 
Cunningham imagined that this gateway was directly 
opposite to the northern gate of the city and connected 
with it by a straight street leading through the middle 
of the lower city, but excavations in this part of the 
site show that his ideas on this point were incorrect. 

Outside the northern wall of the Sirkap city was Babar Khana 
a suburb, now known as Babar-khana or the Kachcha °^- Kachcha Kot. 
Kot from the fact that it is defended by earthen 


ramparts only. This suburb has a circuit of rather 
more than a mile and a quarter, and is enclosed on the 
west in a bend of the Tamra nala, above which its 
fortifications rise to a height of about 40 feet. 
SrasuKH. The third city is that of Sirsukh, situated still 

further to the north-east, on the opposite side of the 
Lundi nala. This city appears to have been built 
by the Kushans, probably during the reign of Kani- 
shka. Its plan is roughly a parallelogTam, and the 
circuit of the walls is not far short of three miles. The 
walls, which are relatively well-preserved along part 
of the southern and eastern sides, are of massive con- 
struction, some 18 feet or more in thickness and 
protected by circular bastions on their outer side. The 
facing of the walls is of the ' large diaper ' masomy 
which came into vogue in the early Kushan period ; the 
bastions are circular, ^ and the intervals between them 
measure 90 feet. Inside the city are three modern 
villages, Mirpiu', Tofkiafi, and Find Gakhra, placed 
on the remains of ancient buildings, which are still 
peeping out from the debris among the houses. 
MoNtTMENTs 111 addition to these three city sites — the Bhir 
OTJTsiDE THE nioiind, Sirlvap and Sirsukh — there are many other 
CITIES,. detached monuments, mainly Buddhist stupas and 

monasteries, scattered about over the face of the 
surrounding country. The Buddhist remains are spe- 
cially numerous in the southern half of the valley, 
where they occupy most of the barren hillocks alongside 
the Tamra nala, conspicuous among them being the 
imposing Dharmarajika Stupa, known locally as the 

• Not square, or shoivn by Gen. Cunningham. 


" Chir " or " Split " Tope, from the great cleft which 
former explorers drove through its centre. In the 
northern half of the valley, however, and among the 
hills of the Hathial ridge are many other Buddhist 
settlements, of which five have already been excavated 
and have yielded results of surpassing interest. These 
are the Kunala Stupa and monastery which stand 
on the northern ridge of Hathial, partly covering the 
old city wall of Sirkap ; the stupas and monasteries 
at Mohra Moradu and Jaulian in the same range of 
hills further to the east ; and those at Badalpur and 
Lalchak in the valley to the north. At Jandial, 
a little to the north of the Kachclia Ivot, are two con- 
spicuous mounds, on one of which is a spacious temple, 
dedicated, there is good reason to believe, to fire- 
worship ; and a little beyond these, again, are the 
remains of two smaller stupas — which may have been 
either Jaina or Buddhist, probably the former. Still 
further north a conspicuous land-mark is furnished 
by the lofty Bhallar Stupa, which occupies a prominent 
position on the last spur of the hills bounding the 
valley of Taxila on the north. Beside these remains 
there are, dotted here and there in the valleys and hills, 
many other eminences of ancient days, but the sites 
mentioned above are the only ones that have j'et been 
excavated, and it is unnecessary here to enter into 
particulars regarding the others. 



Notwithstanding the power and wealth of Taxila 
in ancient days, the information we possess regarding 
its history is singularly meagre, being drawn in the 
main from the accounts of Greek or Chinese writers, 
or laboriously pieced together with the help of coins 
and a few rare inscriptions. The name of the city 
was Takkasila or Takhasila (in Sanskrit Takshasila),'^ 
which in Greek and Roman writers was transcribed 
as Taxila. The foundation of the earliest city goes 
back to a very remote age. In the Mahabharata- 
it is mentioned in connexion with the great snake 
sacrifice of King Janamejaya, by whom it had been 
conquered. Later on — about the beginning, that is to 
say, of the 5th century before our era — it was probably 
Persian Empire, included in the Achaemenid Empire of Persia ; for the 
inscriptions of Darius at Persepolis aud on his tomb 
at Naksh-i-Rustam make mention of a new Indian 
satrapy, which was regarded as the richest aud most 
populous in the Empire and which, being distinct 

1 Meaning probably " The city of cut stone." 

'•' The more important references to Taxila in Indian literature 

have been collected by Dr. V. S. Sukthankar. A. S. R., 1914-15, 

Pt. II, pp. 36-41. 



from Aria, Arachosia and Gandaria, may be assumed 
to have comprised Sind and a considerable part of 
tlie Panjab east of tlie Indus. ^ An interesting relic 
of Persian influence at Taxila is an inscription in 
Aramaic characters of the 4th or 5th century B.C., 
the only Aramaic record that has yet been found in 
India (p. 75). That Taxila at this time and during 
the centuries immediately following enjoyed a great 
reputation as a University town, famous for the arts 
and sciences of the day, is evident from numerous 
passages in the Buddhist Jatakas ; but, apart from 
this fact, virtually nothing is known of its history 
prior to the invasion of Alexander the Great. That Alexander the 
monarch descended on the Panjab and received the "'*^^'''- 
submission of Taxila in the spring of 326 B.C., halting 
there for some weeks preparatory to his attack on 
Porus. From the extant accounts of Alexander's 
expedition, based on the writings of his own com- 
panions or contemporaries, we learn that the city 
was then very wealthy, populous and well governed, 
and that its territories extended from the Indus to the 
Hydaspes. We learn, too, that polygamy and the 
practice of satl were in vogue ; that girls too poor 
to be wedded were exposed for sale in the market 
place ; and that the bodies of the dead were thro^vir 
to the vultures. At the time of Alexander's invasion, 
the reigning king Ambhi, known to the Greeks as 
Omphis or Taxiles,^ was at war not only with the 

> Cf. V. S. Smith, Early History of India, 3rd Ed., p. 38. On tha 
other hand, some of the Jatakaa refer to Taxila as a capital city of 
Gandhara itself. 

^ Manifestly a territorial title. 



powerful kingdom of Porus, on the further side of the 
Jihlam, but with the neighbouring Hill State of Abhi- 
sara, and it was no doubt in the hope of securing 
Alexander's help against these foes that he sent an 
embassy to wait upon the Macedonian at IJnd (Uda- 
bhanda) and led out his troops in person from Taxila, 
in order to place them at the service of the conqueror, 
afterwards entertaining him with lavish hospitality at 
the capital and providing a contingent of five thousand 
men for the expedition against Porus. In return for 
these and other friendly acts Ambhi was confirmed 
in the possession of his own territories and rewarded 
by the accession of new ones, while his position was 
further strengthened by a reconciliation with Porus. 

The Macedonian conquest of North- Western India 
was a splendid achievement ; but its effects were 
short-lived. Alexander had intended the permanent 
annexation of the North- West, and for that purpose he 
left colonies and garrisons behind him to consolidate 
what he had won, but within six years of his death, 
which too place in 323 B.C., Eudemus, the Greek 
Governor, withdrew from the Indus valley with all 
the forces he could muster to assist Eumenes against 
Antiochus, and about the same time, or perhaps even 
earlier, Chandragupta drove out the Greek garrisons 
east of the Indus, and proceeded to incorporate Taxila 
and the other states of the Panjab into the Empire 
of Magadha. Then followed, about 305 B.C., the 
Seletjctts transient and ineffective invasion of Seleucus Nicator, 
icATOR. ^^^ sought to reconquer the lost possessions 
of Alexander, but was reduced to making a hasty 
and humiliating peace with Chandragupta, under 


the terms of which all the old Macedonian provinces, 

as far as the Hindu Kush, were ceded to the Maurya Empire. 

Indian Monarch. ^ To the states of the Panjab the 

iron hand of Chandragupta must have proved more 

oppressive than that of the Greeks before him, and, 

when his son Bindusara succeeded to the throne of 

Magadha, Taxila threw off the Maurya yoke and was 

not, seemingly, brought to submission until the 

Crown prince ASoka himself appeared before its 

gates. Asoka afterwards ruled here as Viceroy on 

behalf of Bindusara, and during his father's and his 

own life-time he appears to have maintained the 

Maurya power throughout the North- West no less 

efficiently, though perhaps less harshly, than did his 

grandfather Chandragupta. To him, no doubt, was 

subsequently due much of the strength which Buddhism 

gained in this part of India. ^ 

Soon after Asoka's death, which occurred about Baoteiak 
the year 231 B.C., the empire of Magadha began to Greeks. 
break up, and Taxila, along with other outlying pro- 
vinces, was able once again to assert her independence, 
only to fall an easy prey to fresh Greek invaders from 
Bactria, whom the decline of the Maurya power invited 
eastward. These invaders were the descendants of 

1 The hasty conclusion of this peace, by which Seleucua 
Nicator received only 500 elephants in exchange for so vast a tract 
of country was probably due no less to the danger with which he 
was threatened by Antigonus in the West, than to the unexpectedly 
strong opposition of Chandragupta, though Seleucus must hayo 
recognised the impracticabihty of ever efiectively holding the dis- 
puted provinces. 

2 There is a tradition recorded by Hsiian Tsang to the efioct that 
Khotan was first colonized by exiles from Taxila, baiiished by A^oka 
after the bhnding of his son, Kunala. See pp. 60-01 infra, and 
Stein. Ancient Khotan, I, pp. 156 sqq. 


the Greek colonies which Alexander the Great had 
planted in Bactria and which, unlike the colonies of 
the Panjab, had taken firm root and flourished. Thus, 
although the Macedonian's conquest of the Panjab 
*■ made no permanent impression upon India, his conquest 
of the neighbouring countries was indirectly responsi- 
ble for the subsequent establishment of Greek culture 
and Greek art in the north-west. The first of the 
Bactrian invaders to reach Taxila was Demetrius, 
son-in-law of Antiochus the Great ( c. 190 B.C.), who 
carried his arms successfully through the Kabul valley, 
the Panjab and Sind. Twenty years later came 
Eucratides, who wrested first Bactria and then part 
of his Indian possessions, including Taxila, from 
Demetrius. From these two conquerors there sprang 
two rival lines of princes, who continued in India the 
feud which had been started in Bactria,^ encroaching 
from time to time upon each other's territories. Among 
the Greek kings who ruled over Taxila, ApoUodotua 
and Menander apparently belonged to the house of 
Demetrius, Antialcidas to that of Eucratides.^ 
Of the many other Greek rulers in the Panjab and 
North- West oiu? knowledge at present is too meagre to 
determine which of them ruled at Taxila, and what 
connexion, if any, they had with the one or the other 
of these two houses. 
Scythians AND The rule of the Greeks at Taxila had endured for 
Parthians. ij^^jg j-^^Qj,g ^Yian a century, when it was swept away 

1 Cf. Eapson, Ancient India, p. 128. 

- Op. C'it., p. 133. Other authorities take ApoUodotua to be a 
son of Eucratides. Cumiinsham Nvrniwialic Chron., 1869, pp. 


by invading hosts of barbarians from the west. These 
barbarians were the Scythians or Sakas, as they were 
kno-WTi in India, who had long been settled in the 
Parthian Province of Seistan, and had there mingled 
and intermarried freely with the Parthian elements in 
the population. From Seistan they overran Arachosia 
and the neighbouring countries, and thence passed 
across the Indus to the conquest of the Panjab. In 
Ai-achosia one section of these invaders remained 
and established its supremacy under the leadership of a 
Parthian named Vonones ; while another section, under 
the Saka chief Maues, pressed eastward and conquered 
the kingdom of Taxila. Maues appears to have risen 
to power in Arachosia about 95 B.C., and to have 
reached Taxila some ten or fifteen years later. He was 
succeeded in or about 58 B.C. by Azes I, who had been 
intimately associated with the family of Vonones in the 
Government of Arachosia, and was, in fact, perhaps as 
much a Parthian as a Saka. Though little is known 
of Azes I, there can be no doubt that his reign was a 
long and prosperous one, and it is probable that he 
was responsible for extending and consolidating the 
Saka power throughout North- West India as far as 
the banks of the Jumna. In the administration of his 
dominions he adopted the old Persian system of govern- 
ment by Satraps, which had long been established in 
the Panjab, and this same system was continued by 
his successors, Azilises and Azes II, whose local satraps 
at Taxila and Mathura^ were also of the Saka race 
and connected with one another by close family ties. 

1 Liaka-Kusulaka, I'atika, Rajuvula, and Soriiica. 


On the death of Azes II, the kingdoms of Taxila 
and Arachosia were united under one rule by the 
Parthian Gondopharnes, the fame of whose power 
spread to the Western world, and who figm-ed in early- 
Christian WTritings as the prince to whose court 
St. Thomas the Apostle was sent. This union of the 
two kingdoms took place about the third decade of 
our era and may be presumed to have been a peaceful 
one. After its achievement Gondopharnes proceeded 
to annex the Kabul valley, overthrowing the Greek 
principality in that region and driving out the last 
prince Hermaeus. But there could have been little 
cohesion in this empire of Gondopharnes ; for no 
sooner had his personal authority been removed than 
the satraps of the various Provinces asserted their 
own sovereig-nty. Abdagases, the nephew of Gondo- 
pharnes, took the Western Panjab ; Orthagnes, and 
after him Pakores, Arachosia and Sind ; and other 
parts of his dominions fell to other princelings, among 
whom were Sasan, Sapedanes, and Satavastra, whose 
coins I have discovered for the first time at Taxila. 
Apollonius It was during the Indo-Parthian supremacy, pro- 
OF Tyana. bably in the year 44 A.D., that Apollonius of Tyana 
is reputed to have visited Taxila. According to 
his biogTapher Philostratus, the king then reigning 
at Taxila was named Phraotes, who was independent 
of Vardanes, the Parthian king of Babylon, and him- 
self powerful enough to exercise suzerain power over 
the satrapy of Gandhara.^ Approaching Taxila from 

' It is worthy of remark that Phraotca found it necessary to 
pay subsidies to the wilder tribes on liis frontier in order to keep 
them quiet. 


the north-west, Apollonius halted at a temple in front 
of the wall, which he describes in some detail, and 
which, as we shall presently see, may possibly be 
identical with the temple at Janchal. The city itself, 
viz., the city of Sirkap, was, he says, about the same 
size as Nineveh and fortified like the cities of Greece 
on a symmetrical plau.^ The streets were narrow 
and irregular like the streets of Athens, and the houses 
had the appearance of being one-storied, but had in 
reality basement rooms underground. Inside the city 
was a temple of the Sun and a royal palace, the latter 
of which was distingniished by its simplicity and lack 
of ostentation, very different from the splendour which 
Philostratus had seen at the court of Babylon. 

The credibility of the story of Apollonius as re- 
lated by Philostratus has been reasonably questioned 
by modern critics, and there is no doubt that there 
is much fiction in it mingled with the truth. On the 
other hand, there is little in the account of Taxila 
which is not borne out by what we know of the history 
of those times, while some details find remarkably 
strong corroboration in my own discoveries. It is 
a reasonable inference, therefore, that Apollonius did 
in fact jom'ney as far as Taxila, and that Philostratus 
had access to the notes of his companion Damis. These 
notes were probably correct so far as his own personal 
observations went, but colorued by hearsay stories 
related to him ; and it is likely that other " travellers' 

' The words TeTSf^ia^ai Se ^Ufj-fj^sTpiu; are translatod 
by Conybeare " fairly well fortified," but this can hardly be the 
meaning hero 


tales " were culled by ApoUonius from earlier Greek 
writers, in order to enliven his narrative. 
Hebm^us and To revert, however, to the history of Taxila. The 
THE KtsHANs. Opportunity of recovering his lost kingdom which the 
dismemberment of the Indo-Parthian Empire ofiered 
to Hermajus was not lost upon him. After being 
driven from Kabul, he appears to have formed an 
alliance with Kujiila Kadphises, the powerful chief 
of the Kushans, and with his help to have won back 
Kabul, and afterwards to have combined with him 
in the conquest of Gandhara and Taxila.^ These 
Kushans were a tribe of the people called by the 
Chinese historians Yiieh-chih,^ who emanated origin- 
ally from the extreme north-west of China. From 
China they were driven westward about 170 B.C., 
and proceeded to occupy, first, Bactria and the 
region of the Oxus valley ; then the Kabul valley ; 
and, finally, the plains of Northern India. The chrono- 
logy of this period is very uncertain, but it seems 
probable that it was about 50 or 60 A.D. that Kujula 
Kadphises and Hermseus ^vTested the Kabul valley 
and Taxila from the Parthians, and a few years later 
that Kujiila was succeeded by Wima Kadphises, who 
consolidated and enlarged the empire which his pre- 
decessor had won. To about this period belong the 
coins of the nameless ruler commonly known as Soter 
Megas, who may have been a successor of Wima 
Kadphises.^ Then followed, in the second century 

• See p. 9 ante, footnote 1. 

2 The Yueh-chih arc commonly known as the Kushans, because 
it was to the particular Kushaii tribe that their kings belonged. 

' There seems to me to have been a break between the reigns 
of Kadjjhises II and Kanishka. 


of our era, the great and powerful Kanishka, the most 
famous of all the Kushans, and after him Huvishka 
and Vasudeva. Kanishka made his winter capital at 
Purushapura, the modern Peshawar, and extended his 
conquests over a wide area, from Central Asia to the 
borders of Bengal, and it is probable that this empire 
was maintained intact by his immediate successors. 
The death of Vasudeva probably occurred in the first 
half of the third century A.D., and from this time 
forward the Kushan power gradually declined,^ though 
it survived in the Panjab until the invasion of the 
White Huns or Ephthalites in the 5th century of 
our era. 

In the year 400 A.D. the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hien 
visited the Buddhist monvimeuts at Taxila, but un- 
fortimately has left us no particulars about them. 
From his accounts of other places in that part of India 
however, it is evident that at the time of his pilgrimage 
the great Buddhist sanctuaries of the North-West 
were still relatively vigorous and flourishing ; and it 
is no less evident from the condition in which they have 
been unearthed, that the monuments of Taxila were 
wantonly and ruthlessly devastated in the course of 
the same century. This work of destruction is almost JJe.stiujotion by 
certainly to be attributed to the hordes of barbarian '^'"^ \>n[T.d. unc 
White Huns, who after the year 455 A.D. swept down 
into India in ever increasing numbers, carrying sword 
and fire wherever they went, and not only possessed 
themselves of the kingdom of the Kushans, but 

1 The decline of the Kushan power may have been haatencd 
by an unrecorded Sasanian invasion. Many Sasanian coins have 
been unearthed at Taxila. 


eventually overthrew the great Empire of the 
HusAN TsANG. From this calamity Taxila never again recovered, 
and when Hsiian Tsang visited it in the seventh 
century, he found it had become a dependency of 
Kashmir, that the local chiefs were at feud with one 
another, and that most of the monasteries were ruined 
and desolate.^ 
Modern Of the exploration of the remains at Taxila up to 

EXPLORATIONS, j-j^g ^jjj^g wheu the writer started his operations, there 
is little to chronicle. Like most ancient sites in this 
part of India, it was long subjected to the depredations 
of amateur archseologists or treasure-seekers. Among 
the former were Major Pearse, Major Cracroft, Deputy 
Commissioner of Rawalpindi, and Mr. Delmerick. 
Of the latter one of the worst offenders was a hhisti 
of the village of Shah Dheri named Nur, who in the 
fifties and sixties of last century seems to have made 
his Hving by opening small stiipas in the neighbourhood 
and disposing of their contents to Government officials 
or antiquity dealers. He it was who discovered an 
inscribed gold plate in one of the stiipas near Jandial 
and despoiled many other structures of their relics. 
It was not, however, until 1863, when Gen. Cimningham 
turned his attention to the site, that its identity with 
the ancient Taxila was established. This identity, 
which Gen. Cunningham had first surmised on the 
strength of the topographical indications afforded by 
ancient writers, was confirmed by the discovery on 
the part of some villagers of a stone vase in one of 

' As regards the monuments described by Hsiian Tsang see 
p. 69 below. 


the stupas^ near Shahpur, the inscription on which 
records that the stupa in question had been erected 
at Taxila. Gen. Cunningham's own explorations, 
which were carried out in the cold seasons of 1863-64 
and 1872-73, were limited to mere superficial trenches 
and pits near the north-east corner of the city of Sirkap, 
and in some of the isolated mounds on Hathial, at 
Jandial, Mohra Maliaran, and Seri-ki-Pind. The only 
discoveries of any consequence made by him were 
two temples of inconsiderable size near the village 
of Mohra Maliarafi,^ one of which was remarkable 
for the Ionic columns with which it was adorned. 
The results of these operations are embodied in Gen. 
Cunningham's reports for the years 1863-64 and 1872- 
73. Since the latter date further spoliation among 
these historic remains has been effected by neigh- 
bouring villagers, and numerous antiquities from here 
have found their way into the hands of the dealers 
of Rawalpindi. In no case has there been any system 
or purpose other than that of treasure-seeking in these 
haphazard escavatious, nor has any record of them 
been preserved. 

Of the excavations which the writer has conducted 
at Taxila during the last four winter seasons, a full 
and illustrated record is published in his Annual 

' No. 13 of Gen. Cunningham's plan in C. 8. R., Vol. II, PI. 

" A. S. R., Vol. V, pp. 68-73 and plates XVII-XIX. 

3 Annual Reports of the Director General of Archceology, 1912-13, 
Pt. I., pp. 8-17, Pt, II., pp. 1-52 ; 1913-14, Pt. I., pp. 11-17 ; 1914-15, 
Pt. I., pp. 13-16, Pt. II., pp. 1-41 ; 1915-16, Pt. I., pp. 3, 4, 10-12, 
Pt. II, pp. 1-38. 


Chronology of important eosnts connected with Taxila. 

B.C. 558-.'529 . Cyrus or Kurush, founder of the Aohje- 
menid Empire of Persia. 

563-2 I . Birth of Siddhartha or Gautama Sakyamuni, 

the Buddha. 

527 . . , Death of Mahavira Vardhamana Jnatapu- 

or 4.67 tra, founder of the Jaina religion. 

521-485 . c Darius Hystaspea (Darayavush Vishtaspa) 
king of Persia. 

laxila and the north-west of India annexed 
to the Persian Empire. 

tikylax of Karj^anda explores the lower 
course of the Indus (between 515 and 509). 

485-465 . . Xerxes (Khshayarsha), king of Persia. 

483 . . . Death {Jjlnlidparinirvdna) of the Buddha. 

326 . . . Alexander the Great receives submission 

of Ambhi, king of TaxOa, and after- 
wards defeats Porus at the Hydaspcs 
( Fftasfn-Jihlam). 

323 . . . Death of Alexander at Babylon. 

321 . . . Second partition of Macedonian Empire 

at Triparadeisos. Seleucus Nioator ob- 
tains Babylon, Syria, and Persia ; 
Ambhi is confirmed in possession of the 
Hydaspes country ; Porus in that of the 
lower Indus. 

317 . . . Budemus withdraws from the Indus valley, 

and Chandragupta makes himself master 
of the Panjab, and founds the Maurya 

312 . . . (Oct. 1st) Establishment of the Seleuoidan 


305-303 . . Seleucus invades India and is repulsed by 


300 Cir. . . Megasthenes, ambassador of Seleucus, at 
the court of Chandragupta. 




273 . 
250 Cir. 

Accession of Bindusara Maurya. During 
his reign his son Asoka is Viceroy at 
Taxila. Deimachns, ambassador of Seleu- 
cus, at Patahpiitra. 

Accession of the Emperor Aioka. 

Bactria and Partliia assert their independ- 

232 . . . Death of Asoka ; break-up of Maurya Empire 


190 Cir. . . Demetrius of Bactria conquers tlie Panjab. 

170-175 . . Eucratides wrests power from Demetrius, 

first in Bactria, then in the Panjab. 
Foundation of the citj' of Sirkap. 

140 Cir. . . Antialcidas, kmg of Taxila. HeHodorus sent 

as ambassador to king of Vidisa in Central 

139 Cir. . . Mitliridates of Parthia overthrows kingdom 

of Bactria. 

85-80 . . Maues, the Scythian king, conquers Taxila. 

58 . . . Begmning of Vila'ama era. About this 

date Azes I succeeds Maues. 

17 . . . Liaka Kusulaka Satrap. 

15 Cir. . . Accession of Azilises. 

B.C. 10-A.D. 10. Patika and Rajuvula Satraps. 

B.C. 5 Cir. . Accession of Azcs II. 

A.D. 20-30 . Kuigdoms of Arachosia and Taxila united 

under one rule by Parthian Gondo- 

35 Cir. . . Conquest of Kabul valley from Hermfeus 

by Gondopharnes. 

40 Cir. . . Visit of St. Thomas the Apostle to the court 

of Gondopharnes. 

44 . . . Visit of Apollonius of Tyana. Phraotes 

ruling at Taxila. 



60 Cir. 

75-80 Cir. 





226 . 
319 . 

400 . 
430 . 


510 Cir. 

520 . 


Death of Gondopharnes and division of 
empire among various Parthian princes, 
including Abdagases, Orthagnes, Pakores, 
Sasan, Sapedanes, etc. 

HermEBUs and Kujula Kadphises reconquer 
Kabul valley and afterwards annex 
Gandhara and Taxila. 

Accession of Wima Kadphises, the Kushan 

' Soter Megas.' 

Accession of Kanishka Kushan. Founda- 
tion of the city of Sirsukh. 

Arrian, author of the Indika, flourished, 

Accession of Huvishka. 

Accession of Vasudeva. 

Death of Vasudeva and break-up of Kushan 

Ardashir-i-Babegan founded the Sasanian 
dynasty of Persia. 

Chandragupta I, founder of the Imperial 
Gupta dynasty, crowned, Gupta era 

Fa Hien, the Chinese pilgrim, visits Taxila. 

Kidara Shahi establishes the kingdom of 
the Little Kushans. 

Invasions of Ephthalites or White Huns 
and expulsion of Little Kushans from 

Death of Toramana and accession of 

Sung Yiin, the Chinese pilgrim; in Gandhara. 
Hsiian Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim, visits 



We have seen in the foregoing chapter that between 
the fifth century B.C. and the fifth century A.D. Taxila 
was under the dominion, successively, of seven different 
nations, namely : the Persians, the Macedonians, the 
Mauryas, the Bactrian Greeks, the Scythians (Sakas), 
the Parthians and the Kushans ; and it may be taken 
for granted that, with the exception of the Macedonians 
whose conquest was merely transitory, each of these 
nations in turn left some impress upon the arts and 
culture of the country. Of artistic monuments Aoh^menian. 
however, belonging to the Persian epoch none have 
yet been found either at Taxila or elsewhere in India, 
and, indeed, the only relic of any kind in which direct 
Achsemenian influence is discernible, is the Aramaic 
inscription mentioned on p. 75. True, there are 
strong Persian elements observable in the sculptures 
of a later epoch, particularly in those of the Gandhara 
school, and it has generally been assumed that these 
elements found their way into Indian art at the time 

' For a fuller ax;count of tho evolution of early Indian art, see 
the writer's chapters in tho forthcoming Cambridge Hislory of 
India, some paragraphs from which are hero repeated. 



when tlie Persian Empire extended over tlie north- 
west, the Greek elements following later. There is 
no real evidence, however, to support this assumption. 
A more reasonable view is that the fusion of Iranian 
with Hellenistic ideas took place in Bactria and the 
neighbouring countries after their colonisation by 
Alexander the Great, and that the hybrid art there 
evolved was introduced into India either as a result 
of the peaceful intercourse between the Maurya Empire 
and Western Asia, or as a result of the subsequent 
invasions of the Bacfcrian Greeks, Scythians, Parthians, 
and Kushans, all of whom must have been imbued 
to a greater or less degree with Grseco-Persian culture. 
Mafrya. "WTiatever the truth may be regarding an earlier 
stratum of Achssmenian art in the North-West, the 
history of Indian art at present opens for us in the 
Maurya age, when indigenous art had not yet emerged 
from the primitive stage, and when the Emperor A^oka 
was employing artists from Bactria or its neighbour- 
hood for the erection of his famous memorials. The 
rudimentary character of Indian art at this period is 
well exemplified by the current indigenous coins 
(PI. II) known commonly as ' punch-marked,' which 
are singularly crude and ugly, neither their form, 
which is unsymmetrical, nor the symbols which are 
stamped almost indiscriminately upon their surface, 
having any pretensions to artistic merit. On the other 
hand, the coins of Sophytes (Saubhuti), who was 
reigning in the Salt Range at the close of the ith 
century B.C., are purely Greek in style (PI. II), having 
seemingly been copied from an issue of Seleucus 
Nicator, with whom Sophytes probably came into 

Platk 11. 





i ct 2. PUNCH-MAJlKEIi. 


,' '^:' 


^. DJiiD'lTfs. 7. ErTFlYDIiMl'S. 

S. DEMETUirs. 


ART 25 

contact when the former invaded the Panjab. 
This striking contrast between indigenous and foreign 
workmanship is no less apparent in the plastic art 
of the period. Thus, side by side with the masterly 
figures, both in the round and in relief, with which 
some of the columns of x4soka are crowned and which 
are manifestly the products of the highly mature Perso- 
Greek School, there are images, such as the one from 
Parkham in the Mathura Museum, which are still in 
the unifacial and frontal stage and exhibit all the 
other defects of rudimentary technique. Indeed, so 
far as is known at present, it was only in the jewellers' 
and lapidaries' arts that the Maurya craftsman attained 
any real proficiency, and in this domain his aptitude 
lay, not in the plastic treatment of form, but in the 
highly technical skill with which he cut and polished 
refractory stones or applied delicate filigree or granular 
designs to metal objects. The refined quality of his 
gold and silver work is well illustrated in the two pieces 
reproduced in PI. XVI, 13 and 14, which were dis- 
covered in the Bhir mound in company with a gold coin 
of Diodotus, a large number of local punch-marked coins 
and a quantity of other jewellery and precious stones. 
Apart from this jewellery, almost every object hitherto 
recovered from the Maurya stratum at Taxila is of 
rough, primitive workmanship, and the same is true of 
the majority of contemporary objects from other sites. 

Of the Greek kings of the Panjab, our knowledge Geeek, Scythio 
is, as we saw in the last chapter, very limited, and is ^^^ Parthian. 
in fact mainly derived from their coins, which are fomrd 
in large numbers throughoiit the Panjab and North- 
West Frontier. From these coins we have recovered 


the name3 of some 40 kings, but of the majority 
little more is known than their actual names. The only 
record, on stone, of these Greek kings is one which 
was found a thousand miles away from Taxila in the 
ancient city of Vidisa in Central India. This in- 
scription is carved on a pillar, and states that the pillar 
was set up by a Greek named Heliodorus, the son of 
Dion, who came as ambassador to Vidisa from Antial- 
cidas, the Greek king of Taxila. Incidentally, this 
inscription shows us how the Greeks were then 
embracing the rehgions of the coimtry of their adoption. 
With their very elastic pantheon they readily identified 
Indian gods with their own deities ; and, just as in 
Italy they identified Minerva v>'ith Athena or Bacchus 
with Dionysus, so in India they identified the Sun-god 
Surya with Apollo or Kama, the god of Love, with 
their own Eros ; and they had no hesitation, therefore, 
in paying their devotions to Siva or to Parvatl, to 
Vishnu or to LakshmT. 

The North- West of India, which the Greeks occupied, 
has been swept by invasion after invasion of hosts 
from Central Asia, and there are relatively few monu- 
ments of ancient days that have escaped destruction. 
Those, however, which have survived, as well as the 
monuments and antiquities that have recently been 
recovered from the soil at Taxila and other places, 
all consistently bear witness to the strong hold which 
Hellenistic art took upon this part of India. This 
hold was so strong, that long after the Greek kingdoms 
of the Panjab had passed away, even after the Scythians 
and Parthians, who overthrew the Greeks, had them- 
selves been stipplanted by the Kushans, Greek art 

AET 27 

still remained paramount in the North-West, and 
continued to exercise considerable influence until 
the fifth century of our era, although it was growing- 
more and more decadent j-ear by year. 

This persistence and this slow decadence of Greek 
ideas is best illustrated by the coins, the stylistic history 
of which is singularly lucid and coherent (Pis'. II and 
III). In the earliest examples every feature is 
Hellenistic. The standard weight of the coins is the 
standard established by Athens ; the legends are in 
Greek ; the types are taken from Greek mythology, and 
are moreover designed with a grace and beauty remini- 
scent of the schools of Praxiteles and Lysippus ; and 
their portraiture is characterised by a refined realism 
which, while it is unmistakably Greek, demonstrates 
a remarkable originality on the part of the engravers 
in India. Later on, when the Greek power in India 
became consolidated, the old Attic standard gave 
place to one, possibly based on Persian coinage, which 
was more suited to the needs of local commerce ; 
bilingual legends (on the one side in Greek, on the 
other in Kharoshthi) were substituted for the Greek ; 
and little by little the other Greek qualities gradually 
faded, Indian elements being introduced among the 
types and the portraits losing their freshness and 
animation. And so the process of degeneration con- 
tinued, relatively slowly among the Eurasian Greeks, 
more rapidly when the Greeks were supplanted by the 
Scythians and Parthians. The testimony of these coins 
is especially valuable in this respect : it proves that the 
engravers who produced them were no mere slavish 
copyists of western models, but were giving free and 



spontaneous expression to their own ideas ; and it 
proves further that, though Greeli art underwent an 
inevitable transformation on Indian soil, and as a 
result of pohtical changes, nevertheless its influence 
was long and well sustained. 

The same is the case also with the engraved gems, 
which are fomidin large numbers throughout the Panjab 
and North- West Frontier and which exhibit precisely 
the same stylistic development as the coins. Nor does 
this numismatic and glyptic evidence stand alone. It 
is endorsed also by the other antiquities of this age 
which have come down to us, thouo'h in their case with 
this notable difference^a difference for which political 
considerations readily account — that, whereas the coins 
of the Indo-Parthians evince a close dependence on 
Parthian prototypes, warranting the presumption that 
the kings who issued them were of Parthian stock, the 
contemporary architecture and other antiquities show 
relatively little evidence of the semi-barbarous 
influence from that region. Of the buildings of the 
Eurasian Greeks themselves no remains have yet been 
brought to light save the plain and unembellished 
dwelhng houses of Taxila, but the monuments erected 
on this site during the Scytho-Parthian supremacy 
leave no room for doubt that architecture of the 
classical style had long been fashionable in this quarter 
of India ; for, though by that time the decorative 
features were beginning to be Indianised, the Hellenistic 
elements in them were still in complete preponderance 
over the Oriental. Thus, the ornamentation of the 
stupas of this period was primarily based on the" Corin- 
thian " order, modified by the addition of Indian motifs, 

Platk III. 

7//. ZofLCS. 

/.;. MACKS. 


Hi. AZKS I. 



l,S. (tONIXiPllAllNKS. 




7,7. IIKIIMAiaJS. 




'2.3. KJ.ST/'ATJ. 

ART 29 

while the only temples that have yet been unearthed 
are characterised by the presence of Ionic columns 
and classical mouldings. In the example of the former 
class of structures illustrated in PI. XII the Indian ele- 
ments in the design are more than usually conspicuous, 
but even in this stupa, which belongs to the reign of 
Azes and probably to the Jaina faith, they are res- 
tricted to the small brackets over the Corinthian 
capitals and to the subsidiary toranas^ and arched 
niches which relieve the interspaces between the 

As with the architectural, so with the plastic and 
other arts ; they, one and all, derived their inspiration 
from the Hellenistic School and in the very slowness 
of their decline, bear testimony to the remarkable 
persistency of its teachings. Of earlier and purer 
workmanship a good illustration is afforded by the 
ivory pendant adorned with two bearded heads from 
Sirkap (PI. XVI, 10) and by the vine-wreathed head of 
Dionysus in silver repousse from the same spot (PL I). 
The god is garlanded with the usual vine, has the 
Satyr's ears, and carries in his hands a typical double- 
handled cantharus. The style of this head is bold 
and broad, and characteristic of the best period of 
Hellenistic art. To a little later date — probably the 
first century B.C. — belongs the beautiful little statuette 
of bronze figured in PI. XV. It is the figure of 
Harpocrates, the Egyptian child god of silence, and 

' The finest and indeed the only complete examples of ancient 
Indian toranas (gateways) are those at Saiichi in Bhopal State. 
The Indian iorana is the prototype of the Chinese " pailu " and 
the Japanese *' torii." No doubt it was introdueed into those 
countries with the spread of Buddhism to the East. 


it is ill token of silence that ho holds his finger to his 
lips. There is a charming simplicity and naivete about 
the treatment of this child, which is unmistakably 
Greek. Later on (that is to say, about the beginning 
of the Christian era) we find Indian ideas beginning 
to coalesce with the Greelv and art becoming somewhat 
more hybrid. Witness, for example, the well known 
gold casket from Bimarau^ in Afghanistan, in which 
the figures of the Buddha and his devotees (the chief 
and central figaires) are in inspiration clearly Hellenic, 
but the arches under which they stand are no less 
clearly Indian ; while beneath the base of the casket 
is the sacred Indian lotus, frdl blown. 

Under the supremacy of the Kushans a vast number 
of Buddhist monasteries and stupas sprang into exist- 
ence, and a new lease of life was given to the old Greek 
School. No doubt, during their long sojom-n in Bactria 
and the Oxus Valley the Kushans had absorbed much 
of the Oriental Greek spirit, and it was probably due 
to this that their arrival in India was the signal for a 
fresh outbm'st of artistic activitj^ The chief centre 
of this activity was the valley of Peshawar, where 
Kanishka established his winter capital. This tract of 
Gandhaean. country was then called Gandhara, and it is for this 
reason that the school of art which flourished here 
during the Kushan epoch is known as the Gandhara 
School. Large collections of the sculptirres which this 
school produced have been made on the frontier, and 

^ Cf. Ariana Aittiquu, p. 53, PI. Ill; Fouchcr, L'Art greco- 
bmidJlnque du Gandhdru, jj. 51, lig. 7 ; Birdwood, Induslrial Arts of 
India, PL I ; Vincent Smith, IJiilonj of fine Art in India and Ceylon, 
I). 35U and PI. LXXIV, lig. B. 

ART 31 

may be seen in the museums at Peshawar, Lahore 
and Calcutta ; numerous specimens, too, have been 
found at Taxila itself, of which some illustrations are 
given on PI. VIlI.i Unhappily, among the many 
thousands of sculptures of this school which we possess, 
there is not one which bears a date in any known era, 
nor do considerations of style enable us to determine 
their chronological sequence with any approach to 
accuracy. Nevertheless, it may be taken as a general 
maxim that the earlier they are, the more nearly they 
approximate in style to Hellenistic work, and it may 
also be safely asserted that a number of them, dis- 
tinguished by their less stereotyped or less rococo 
character, are anterior to the reigu of Kanishka. 

The sculptrues of this school were executed in 
stone," stucco, and terracotta and appear to have 
been invariably embellished with gold leaf or paint. 
Stone being the more durable, it happens that most 
of the specimens preserved at Peshawar, Lahore, and 
in other museums are in that material ;• but at Taxila 
we have been fortunate in recovering, besides stone 
images, a vast number of well-preserved stucco ones 
and a few also in terracotta. 

In many features, both of style and execution, 
these scidptures recall to mind Eoman work of the 
same period, and this resemblance has led some writers 
to suppose that Eoman art and Eoman culture extended 
their influence as far as Northern India. This ex- 

1 Cj. also pp. 55, 56 below. 

" The Btonc used for niOKt of these sculptures is a poculiiir variety 
of grey schist stone, which is believed to come from the neighbour- 
hood of the Swat Valley, though its provenance has never been 
definitely settled. 


planation, however, is based on a fundameatal error 
as to the genesis of Roman Imperial art and the rela- 
tion in which it stood to the Hellenistic art of Western 
Asia. Ever since the time of the Seleucids it was 
Western Asia that had been the real centre of artistic 
effort in the ancient world. Westerji Asia was the 
crucible in which the arts of Greece and of Ionia, of 
Persia and of Mesopotamia, were fused together ; and it 
was from Western Asia that the streams of art flowed 
westward over the Roman Empire and eastward over 
Parthia, Turkestan and India. It is a mistake to 
suppose that Roman ideas affected to any great extent 
the plastic arts of Greece or Asia. The converse was 
the case, and the art of Rome, therefore, stood in 
much the same relation as the art of Gandhara did to 
Hellenistic art. In other words, Gandhara art was 
the sister (or more correctly, perhaps the cousin), not 
^ the daughter, of Roman art, both schools tracing 

their parentage to the same common stock ; and it 
is not surprising, therefore, to find that the arts of Rome 
and of Gandhara are distinguished by the same family 
Influence of The question of the role played by classical art 
Greek art in j^ l^jja has been a much disputed one in the past, 
India. i • • ■ • . i i 

some authorities maintaining that it was almost a 

negligible factor, others that it underlay the whole 
fabric of Indian art. The truth, as so often happens, 
lies between the two extremes. In Hindustan and 
in Central India it played an important part in pro- 
moting the development of the Early National School, 
both by clearing its path of technical difficulties and 
strengthening its growth with new and invigorating 

ARt 33 

ideas. In the nortli-west region and immediately 
beyond its frontiers, on the other hand, it long main- 
tained a complete supremacy, obscuring the indi- 
genous traditions and itself producing works of no 
mean merit, which add appreciably to our understanding 
of the Hellenistic genius. Here, too, as Indian influence 
waxed stronger, it eventually culminated in the School 
of Gandhara, which left an indelible mark on Buddhist 
art throughout the Orient. Nevertheless, in spite 
of its wide diffusion, Hellenistic art never took the 
real hold upon India that it took, for example, upon 
Italy or Western Asia, for the reason that the tempera- 
ments of the two peoples were radically dissimilar. 
To the Greek, man, man's beauty, man's intellect 
were everything, and it was the apotheosis of this 
beauty and this intellect which still remained the key- 
note of Hellenistic art even in the Orient. But these 
ideals awakened no response in the Indian mind. 
The vision of the Indian was bounded by the immortal 
rather than the mortal, by the infinite rather than the 
finite. Where Greek thought was ethical, his was 
spiritual ; where Greek was rational, his was emotional. 
And to these higher aspirations, these more spiritual 
instincts, he sought, at a later date, to give articulate 
expression by translating them into terms of form and 
colour. But that was not until the more spacious 
times of the Guptas, when a closer contact had been 
established between thought and art, and new impulses 
imparted to each. Prior to the mediaeval epoch the 
Indian had not conceived the bold and, as some think, 
chimerical idea of thus incarnating spirit in matter. 
Art to him was a thing apart — a sensuous, concrete 


expression of the beautiful, which appealed intimately 
to his subconscious festhetic sense, but in which neither 
intellectuahty nor mysticism had any share. For 
the rest, he found in the formative arts a valuable 
medium in which to narrate, in simple and universal 
language, the legends and history of his faith ; and 
this vras mainly why, for the sake of its lucidity and 
dramatic power, he welcomed and absorbed the lessons 
of Hellenistic art, not because he sympathised with 
its ideals or saw in it the means of giving utterance 
to his own. 


The Dhakmae7v,jika Stupa^ 

III the description wliich follows of the remains of 
Taxila- I shall start with the Dharmarajika Stupa, 

' Primarily stupas were, no doubt, funeral mounds or tumuli ; 
but among tlio Buddliists tlioy were erected either to erLshrine 
some relic of the Buddha or of a Buddhist samt or else to commemo- 
rate some specially sacred spot. From the outward form of a 
stupa it is not possible to determine whether it contains a rcUc or 
not. The erection of a stupa has always been regarded by the 
Buddhists as a work of merit, which brings its author a stop nearer 
to salvation. " Tope " is a corrupt Anglo-Indian word derived 
from ihipa, the Prakrit form of sltlpa. In Burma a stupa is com- 
monly knowai as a ' ■pagoda ' and in Ceylon as a 'ddgaba' — a Singalese 
word derived from ' dfidlu ' = a ' rehc ' and ' (jarblia ' = receptacle or 
shrine. In Nepal it is called a chaitya, a word which, like stupa, 
originally meant a heap or tumulus (chitd) but subsequently came 
to mean a sanctuary of any kind. See Fergusson, /. B. A., pp. 
54-5 ; G. I. I., Vol. Ill, p. 30, Note I. For the details of the con- 
struction and dedication of a stiipa see MahdvamSa, 169 sc[q ;. 
Divydvaddna, p. 244 ; Cunningham, Bhilsa Topes, Ch. XIII ; H. A. 
Oldfield, Sketches from Nepal, II, pp. 210-12 ; Foucher, L' Art Greco- 
Bonddhiqve, pp. 94-98. 

2 To visit all the remahis now brought to light at Tasila two 
full days are required. At present the roads are unmetalled, and, 
except in good weather and when they have recently been repaired, 
are not suitable for motor cars. A 'Bareilly ' cart can generally be 
obtained at Sarai-kala, but it is advisable to arrange for it in ad- 
vance. In this and other matters the overseer at the ArchEeologioal 
bungalow gives whatever assistance he can. Assuming that a 
visitor has only five or six hours to spare, a good plan is to drive to 
the Dharmarajikii stilpa (Cliir Tope), thence walk (about a mile and 
a quarter) tlirough a defile in the hills to the stupa of Kunala, and 
afterwards descend into the city of Sirkap. The conveyance can 



then proceed over the ridge of Hathial to the stupa 
of Kiinala and descend from there into the city of 
Sirkap. From Sirkap I shall conduct the visitor 
over the temple at Jandial and the remains of two 
small stupas beyond it to the north. Thence we 
shall make our way to the city of Sirsukh and the 
Buddhist monuments at Lalchak and Badalpur ; and 
final ly we shall visit what are in some respects the most 
remarkable and the best preserved of all the monuments 
at Taxila, namely, the Buddhist stupas and monas- 
teries at Mohra Moradu and JauliaSi. 

The Dharmarajika stupa or ' Chir Tope'^ (PL IX), 
as it is locally kno\^Ti from the cleft driven through 
its centre by former explorers, stands on a lofty 
plateau high above the Tamra nala. Prior to the 
spot being occupied by a Buddhist establishment, 
it appears to have been the site of a village. 
To this early stratum of habitation belongs a 
collection of 28 coins of the Greek king Zoilus, 
which were unearthed below the foundation of the 
building H. The Great Stiipa, which stands in the 
centre of the plateau, is much ruined — so much so 
that fifty years ago Sir Alexander Cunningham affirmed 
that only the core of the structure survived. The 
recent excavations, however, in the course of which 

meanwhile go round to the northern side of Sirkap and having 
rejoined it the visitor can drive to the Temple of Jandial and 
thence to Jlohra Moradu and Jauliari. Tlie antiquities at the 
Archaeological Bungalow should, when accessible to visitors, be 
seen after rather than before the monuments. 

1 The unmetalled road that has been made to the Dharmarajika 
stupa is a winding one and nearly two miles long. There is a sliort 
cut across the Tamra nala immediately to the east of the Bhir 




debris to the depth of some thirty feet has been removed 
from around its base, have revealed considerable 
sections of the old facing in a fair state of preserva- 
tion, and have brought to light a large number of other 
interesting structures, including stiipas, chapels and 
monastic quarters, which, extending as they do over 
a period of at least four centuries, furnish us with 
important data for the history of local architecture. 
Thanks, also, to the coins and other minor antiquities 
found in association with them, they help us materi- 
ally towards the solution of many chronological 
problems connected with this period of ancient history. 

The main structure, as now exposed, is circular The main 
in plan with a raised terrace around its base, which structure 
was ascended by four flights of steps, one at each of 
the cardinal points. The core of the stupa is of rough 
rubble masonry strengthened by walls, between 3 
and 5 feet in thickness, radiating from the centre. 
These construction walls stop short above the berm 
of the stupa, instead of being carried down to its founda- 
tions, and appear to belong to a subsequent recon- 
struction of the fabric, which took place probably during 
the Kushan epoch. The outer facing is of ponderous 
limestone blocks with chiselled kanjur stone let in 
between them for the mouldings and pilasters, the 
whole having been once finished with a coating of 
lime plaster and paint. The ornamental stone carving 
on the face of the stiipa above the berm is best preserved 
on the eastern side. Its most distinguishing features 
are the boldness of its mouldings and the design of 
its niches, which are framed alternately by trefoil 
arches and doorways with sloping jambs, and divided 


one from the other by Corinthian pilasters. The same 
type of decoration is also found on smaller stupas on 
this site belonging to the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries A.D. 
Ap]5arently, the original stfipa was built in the time 
of the Scytho-Parthian rulers, but repaired and enlarged 
in the Kushan epoch and partly refaced again about 
the 4th century A.D., to which period the decora- 
tion above the terrace belongs. 

The raised terrace and the open passage around 
the foot of the stupa served in ancient days as proces- 
sion paths {pradaJcsMna patka), round which it was 
customary for the faithful to ' process,' keeping the 
stiipa always on the right hand. Now-a-days, the 
Buddhists ordinarily process three times round a 
stupa or other sacred edifice, but in obedience to vows 
they will process 7, 14 or even 108 times. 

The original floor of the procession path is composed 
of lirne mixed with river sand, and part of it in the north- 
west quadrant is adorned in a curious fashion \^ath shell 
bangles imbedded in the plaster and arranged in various 
geometrical designs, some of the bangles being whole, 
others cut in halves or in quarters.^ Above this floor 
was an accnmulatio)! of debris about three inches thick 
and over this, again, a second cJninam floor. In the 
stratum immediately above this latter floor were found 
many pieces of glass tiles. Probably, the whole of the 
procession path was at one time paved wth these 
glass tiles, and later on, when the pavement had fallen 
into disrepair, a number of the tiles were removed 

1 For tlie protection of this decoration, it lias for tlie time beinc 
been covered again with a layer of earth. 


from here to the chamber F^, where they were found 
laid in a somewhat careless manner. ^ 

Immediately to the left of the steps on the eastern 
side of the stupa is the lower part of a pillar, which 
probably once supported a lion capital, like the pillars 
in Sirkap (p. 75). Such pillars were doubtless 
imitated from the well known pillars of Asoka, which 
were frequently set up beside important Buddhist 

Of the minor antiquities foimd in the procession 
passage the only ones of interest were some Gandhara 
sculptures and coins. Of the former a typical 
specimen is a figure of the Bodhisattva^ (?Sakya- 
niimi) standing beneath an umbrella canopy in 
the attitude of protection (abhaya-mudrd), with 
attendant figm-es. The coins were found in a hoard 
to the number of 355 concealed in a small block of 
kanjux stone near the western steps. They comprise 
specimens of Azes II, Soter Megas, Huvishka, Vasudeva 
and issues of Indo-Sasanian or Kushano-Sasanian type. 

The Great Stupa described above was, it need Small circulab 
hardly be said, the first of the Buddhist structures stupas around 
to be erected on the plateau. At the time when it g^RTjcTunB 
was constructed, the plateau around was levelled 

•■A. S. R. 1912-13, Pt. II, p. IS. 

^ BodhiKattva means literally a being whose characteristic 
(6'ai'.'!;a=Pali salla) and aim are enlightenment (hodhi). Gautama 
was a Bodhisattva in his previous existence and also during his 
historical existence up to the time when he attained enlightenment, 
and became the Buddha. According to the Northern or Mahayana 
School of Buddhism, there arc besides Gautama innumerable other 
Bodhisattvas, both human and divhie, among the best known of 
whom are : Avalokitesvara, MafijulrJ, JIarichi and Samantabhadra, 
Vajrapani and Maitreya., the last of whom is the coming and last 
Buddha of this age of the world. 


up and covered with a layer of grey river sand with 
a floor of lime plaster above. On this floor or on the 
debris which accumulated immediately above it there 
was subsequently built, in a ring around the central 
edifice, a number of small stupas, of which ten have 
been unearthed up to date. In the plan on PI. IV 
they are numbered, starting from the west, R*, S®, B", 
B3, B", Bi«, B^o, D", Di, D2 and D^. These small 
stupas were originally circular in plan and con- 
structed of rough rubble cores generally faced with 
square kafijur blocks, the only existing decoration 
being a simple base moulding. Later on, several of 
them, e.g., D^, and R*, were enlarged by the addition 
of square bases. In several of these stupas, buried 
at a depth of five or six feet beneath their bases, were 
found relic deposits of which the two following may 
be taken as typical examples. 

In B^ the relic chamber, roughly constructed of 
small stones and covered by a large slab of limestone,^ 
contained a casket of steatite and a miniature stupa 
of fine grey limestone. Inside the casket, which is 
i in. high and well-turned on the lathe, was a smaller 
casket of silvery bronze If in. high, in the form of 
a stupa crowned with umbrellas ; and in this miniature 
receptacle were some calcined bones and ashes, and 
a few gold, agate, pearl and bone beads. The stupa 
of grey limestone is provided with a small cavity 
underneath, in which were packed together a large 
assortment of interesting beads and gems of the 
following materials ; — ruby, crystal, banded agate, 

' This stupa is no longer expoised to view. 


jacinth, 8ard, garnet, amethyst, cornelian, aquamarine, 
green jasper, onyx, mother-of-pearl, glass, topaz 
and bone. Some of these beads are in the shape 
of animals or birds, such as the lion, tortoise, frog 
and goose ; others are in the form of a crescent or 
Iriralna^ ; others are barrel shaped, polygonal or amyg- 
daloid. From the appearance of the little limestone 
stupa it may be surmised that it formerly belonged 
to an older structure, and that it was transferred to 
the one in which I found it when its original resting 
place had fallen into disrepair. Whether the gems 
inside it were of the same date or not, is open to question. 

In the relic chamber of another stupa (S^) were 
foivr small earthenware lamps — one in each corner of 
the chamber — four coins of the Scythian kings, Maues 
and Azes I, and a vase of steatite. The vase con- 
tained a miniature casket of gold together with three 
gold safety pins, and some small beads of ruby, garnet, 
amethyst, and crystal ; and inside the miniature 
gold casket, again, were some beads of bone and ruby 
with pieces of silver leaf, coral and stone, and along 
with these the bone rehc. In February, 1917, these 
relics were presented by the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, 
to the Buddhists of Ceylon and were enshrined by 
them in the Temple of the Tooth Relic (Dalada Mali- 
gawa) at Kandy. 

The next stage of building around the Great Stupa Circle of small 
is marked by the erection of gateways opposite the ohapels. 
steps at the four cardinal points, and of a circle of 

1 Tn>a;?ia=' Three jewels.' The trident device symbolises 
the trinity of Buddhism : the Buddha, the Dharrna (Law) and the 
Saiigha (Religious order). 


small chapels which are similar in plan, as well in 
purpose, to those at Jamalgarhi in the Frontier Pro- 
vince, being intended for the enshrinement of Buddhist 
images which were set up facing the Great Stiipa. 
In Burma, it is against the Buddhist principles ever 
to destroy a stiipa or any other work of merit, and 
it may be presumed that the same practice obtained 
among the Buddhists of ancient India. Accordingly, 
wlien these chapels were built, the small stiipas then 
standing, although much decayed, were suffered to 
remain, the ground between them being partially 
filled in with debris and the walls of the new chapels 
carried over their tops. 
Consecutive The earliest of these chapels as well as the walls 
TYPES OF flanking the gateways, which date from the latter 
BiAsoNKY. j^g^j^ ^1 ^Yie first century A.D., are built in a very dis- 
tinctive style of masonry known commonly as ' diaper 
patterned '. At the period to which they belong 
the diaper was characterised by the use of relatively 
small boulders and by the neatness of the piles of 
small stones in the interstices between them. 
Examples of this masonry can be seen in the chapels 
numbered B^^, B^", Dl 

About the close of the first century A.D. this small 
diaper masonry gave place to a new type in which 
larger boulders were employed. This is the third 
distinct style of masonry employed on this site. It 
ia found iu repairs executed to the original chapels 
as well as in several chapels which were afterwards 
added, and is well exemplified in the chambers 
D^ and D*. With the lapse of time the buildings 
in which it was employed in turn fell to ruin, the 

Plate V. 






spaces between became filled with fallen debris, and 
over this (at a height, that is to say, of several feet 
above the original floor) were constructed other chapels 
in still another kind of masonry. This fourth variety 
is characterised by the use of ashlar and diaper 
masonry combined, and appears to have been in 
vog-ue in the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries A.D. It is 
ixsed for the repair of the upper parts of the earlier 
chapels as well as in the construction of new ones, 
e.g., B^, and B^^. In the earlier examples of this semi- 
ashlar masonry a single course of ashlar is inserted 
between the larger boulders ; in the later examples the 
single course is replaced by two or even three courses. 

Thus, we have four clear and distinct types of 
masoirry immediately around the Main Stupa (PI. V) : 
first, the rubble and hanjnr work of the Scytho-Parthian 
period ; secondly, the neat small diaper which came 
into fashion in the 1st century A.D. ; thirdly, the coarse 
and massive diaper of the 2nd century A.D. ; and 
fourthly, the semi-ashlar, semi-diaper type of the 
3rd and later centiuies. These fom consecutive types 
are equally well illustrated in other buildings at the 
Dharmarajika Stupa as well as in Sirkap and other 

The antiquities found in these chapels came mainly AIiinok antiqui- 
from the highest stratum and consist for the most piiipels' round 
part of stucco and terracotta figures, of which typical jIain Stupa. 
examples are illustrated in PI, VI h and c. 

(fc) Terracotta head, 11-1 in. high. The modelhng 
of the features and treatment of the hair is singularly 
reminiscent of Hellenistic work. Though found m 



a late stratum from B^^^ this head was probably 
executed in the first or second century A.D. (PI. YLb). 

(c) Stucco head of Bodhisattva, 9 in. high. The 
hair is disposed in strands falling from the ushmsha^ 
and ending in curls suggestive of bronze technique. 
From B12 (PL Vic). 

In chapel S*, in its south-west corner, are the 
remains of a raised platform, the body of which is 
composed of mud. Buried in the mud were found 
a large number of clay sealings impressed with the 
Buddhist creed — Ye dharmd Jietu prabhavd, etc.,- — in 
characters of the Gupta age. Such seals are frequently 
found imbedded in ancient Buddhist stupas and even 
in statues. 

The visitor who has followed the route indicated 
on the plan in dotted lines will have entered the 
procession path by its southern entrance, will have 
performed the fradalishiiia around the Great Stiipa, 
and will now emerge again by way of the same entrance. 
As he turns to the left, he will see near by and on his 
SitJPA J. right hand a stiipa of considerable size designated 
Ji in the plan. It consists of a square base, 32 ft. 
4 in. square, composed of three tiers which diminish 
in size as they rise. Above this base was formerly 
a circular drum and dome crowned by an umbrella, 
but all traces of these features have now vanished. 
This stupa appears to have undergone extensive 
repairs in the old days, and the decoration that remains 
is of two different periods. To the earlier period 
belongs the decoration of the lowest tier on the north 

» U's7in?,<;^a = protuberance on the crown of the head, one of the 
marks of a'great man {mahdpuni>iha). 








side, consisting of groups of figures separated from one 
another by debased Corinthian pilasters. The figures 
are executed in stucco, with which material the whole 
face of the stQpa was finished off, and represent seated 
Buddhas accompanied by a devotee standing on 
either side, whose attire is distinctively Indo-Scythic. 
When the stupa was repaired, these groups of figures 
had already suffered damage, and the frieze above 
them was then lowered from its position over the 
capitals of the pilasters, and set in a line with them, 
thus resting on the shoulders of the Buddhas from which 
the heads had disappeared. At the same time a new 
series of pilasters was introduced on the eastern and 
southern fagades of a more stunted form and surmoun- 
ted with notched brackets let in between the capitals 
and the frieze. On these two sides there are no 

The decoration on the second tier appears to belong 
to the later repair. It consists of a row of elephants 
alternating with pairs of Atlantes, the grotesque 
attitudes and late and decadent modelling of which 
are noteworthy. 

A little further eastward is the stupa J^, in which Stupa J'' 
some relics of interest were found. The relic chamber 
was at a height of 2 feet above the floor level and in 
the centre of the structure. In it was a steatite casket 
shaped like a Greek pyxis, which contained a small 
box of silver ; and in this, again, was a still smaller 
box of gold containing some minute fragments of 
bone. There were also a few beads in the steatite 
casket, but no coins with which to fix its date. The 
shape of the steatite casket closely resembles that of 


a casket discovered by the writer some j^ears ago iu 
GJaaz Dheri at Charsadda, wliich was accompanied 
by a coin of Zeionises^ ; but the mouldings and other 
decorative features of J" bespeak for it a much later 
date than that of Zeionises. 
Stupas N"'^'. Passing by the stupas J^-^ and proceeding in a 
northerly direction, we come to another group of 
similar monuments, all of which are built in the semi- 
ashlar type of masonry, are square in plan, and standing 
to a height of some three feet or less. In the centre 
of N^^ was found a large earthen ghard of plain red 
earthenware containing fifteen copper coins of Shapur 
II (309-379 A.D.). Another earthenware vessel which 
was discovered in Stupa N^^* had been badly crushed, 
but the earth from it yielded 18 beads of coral, lapis- 
lazuh, shell and glass. The Stupa N^ yielded a few 
beads only. 

A little further on is a wide passage flanked on 
either side by stupas and chapels and leading to other 
chapels and also, no doubt, to the monastic quarters 
(not yet excavated) on the north. Of the chapels 
Chapels I\" alongside this passage, the two numbered N^' and 
AND K'^. W^ are still quite imposing eveji in their ruin. They 

are constructed of massive semi-ashlar masonry and 
date from the fourth or fifth century A.D. Inside are 
the remains of several images of Buddha, of which 
the principal ones facing the entrances were of colossal 
proportions. Of the one in ISI^^ only the feet and 
lower part of the raiment have survived, but the size 
of the former (5 ft. 3 in. from heel to toe) indicate 

» A. S. It, iaO2-03, Pt. II, pp. 175-176. 


that the figiire had an approximate height of 35 feet ; 
and it follows, therefore, that the chapel itself must 
have been hardly less than 40 feet high. The core 
of these images, as of others of the same age, is composed 
either of kaiijiir stone roughly fashioned to the shape 
of the figure, or of mud, or of mud and stones com- 
bined ; the stucco coating in which the features 
and other details are made out, is almost pure lime. In 
several instances red paint is still adhering to the 
robes of the statues, and no doubt other pigments, 
as well as gilding, were employed for their decoration. 
Observe the excellence of the modelling in the feet 
of some of the smaller figures. Of the heads and hands 
belonging to these statues several were found amid 
the charred debris of the chapels. One of these heads. 
13J" high, of the conveutionahsed type, belonging 
probably to one of the stairding figures in chapel N^'^, 
is illustrated in PI. Via. 

Retracing our steps and turning westward past StOpa N' 
stiipa N^ we come to the little stupa N', which is 
built on the ruins of an older monument. In its relic 
chamber, which was constructed of neat kanjur stones, 
was found the crystal lion illustrated in PL XVI, 11 ; 
and, beneath it a casket of Gandhara stone, containing 
a small box of silvery bronze with some muiute bone 
relics within, accompanied by two small pearls and 
one bead of bright blue paste. 

In the narrow space between P' and P^" was a 
broken Gandhara sculpture representing the offering 
of honey by the monkey to the Buddha, and a little 
below it was a small earthen pot containing five gold 
coins of the later Kushan period, one solid gold ear-ring 



Buildings P^ 

AND P'. 


Stupas K' 

AND P'. 

with pearls attached to it, a few gold beads, plain and 
fluted, and a broken ornament of beaten gold with 
a granulated border. This deposit seems to have 
been placed here after the adjacent buildings had 
become buried in debris. 

A little to the west of this point the visitor passes 
through a narrow passage between the buildings P^ 
and P2. The former of these was a stupa of the Kushan 
period, the latter a chapel in the later style of masonry. 
In this passage are two colossal Buddhas side by side, 
seated on a stone plinth. Their hands rest In the lap 
in the attitude of meditation {dlnjana-mudrd), but their 
heads, unfortunately, are missing. 

In the open space into which we now emerge is 
a tank with four small stupas on its northern and 
eastern sides, which are of some interest in connexion 
with the much disputed question of Kushan chronology. 
The tank is built of a rough variety of masonry coated 
with lime plaster, and on its north side is a flight of 
steps leading to the bottom. Now, the foundations 
of the Stupas K2 and K^ project well over the northern 
end of the steps, and the tank, therefore, must have 
fallen into disuse and been filled in before ever 
the stupas in question were built. But, as the tank 
itself was not built until the first century A.D. 
during the Scytho-Parthian epoch, it follows that the 
stupas can hardly be assigned to a date earlier than 
the 2nd century, though they may be considerably 
more modern than that. In the stupa K^, however, 
was found a relic-vase containing ashes and three 
coins of Kanishka, and in the stupa P®, which is 
apparently contemporary with it, was another earthen 


vase and ten coins of Huvishka and Vasudeva, five 
of which were found inside the vase along with some 
ashes, and five outside. This is one of the links in a 
long chain of evidence at Taxila which proves that the 
Kushans followed and did not antedate the Parthians. 

On the west side of the tank the Stupa K^ is also Stupa K'. 
worthy of notice. Observe in par-t.icular the seated 
image of the Buddha in the niche on the northern 
side, and also the cornice and other details of a dis- 
tinctively Hellenistic character. 

On to the north side of this stupa were subsequently 
built several small chambers, probably chapels, facing 
north. They stand ou a common base adorned with a 
row of stunted pilasters alternating with niches of the 
same design as those above the terrace of the Main 
Stupa, namely, trefoil arches and doorways with sloping 
jambs in which figures of the Buddha were placed. 

From this point it is well worth while to ascend View of the 
the higher ground to the north and take a bird's-eye ■^^'^^ '^^^ ^"^ 
view of the whole site and of the surrounding country „„„„,^„„ 

~ -^ COUNTRY. 

(PI. IX). Five years ago the ground level of the 
whole excavated area was little lower than this ele- 
vated plateau, and standing ou the edge of the latter 
we get a good idea of the amount of debris that had 
to be shifted before this array of buildings could be 
exposed to view. The point to which this debris rose 
around the Great Stupa itself is still clearly visible 
on the sides of the structure. 

As to the character of the remains that still lie 
buried beneath the plateau on which we are standing, 
a clear indication is afl'orded by other Buddhist sites 
in the neighbourhood. If the visitor will look at the 


other eminences in the valle}^ he will see that many of 
them are crowned by groups of ancient ruins, and he 
will observe that in each group there is a circular 
moimd standing side by side with a square one. In 
each of these eases the circular mound covers the 
remains of a Buddhist stupa, and the square one 
adjoining it the remains of a monastery. Similarly, 
at the Dharmarajika Stupa, which was the chief 
monument of its kind at Taxila, it may be taken for 
granted that quarters were provided for the monks in 
close proximity to the sacred edifice, and it is obvious 
from the configuration of the ground that these 
quarters must have occupied the northern part of 
the site. To this monastery no doubt belong the 
high and massive walls which have been laid bare on 
the eastern side of the plateau, but judging by the 
results obtained from other trial trenches it is doubtful 
if this area would repay excavation. 

Descending again to the lower level we pass, on our 
Building H^. right hand, the shrine H^ which was probably intended 
for an image of the Dying Buddha. This building 
exhibits three tj^pes of masonry, representing three 
different periods of construction. In the original 
shrine the stonework is of the small diaper pattern, 
but subsequently this shrine was strengthened and 
enlarged by the addition of a contiguous wall in the 
larger diaper style, as well as of a second wall 
enclosing a pradaLsM)ja passage and portico in front. 
Later on, when the level had risen several feet, addi- 
tions in semi-ashlar masonry were made, and other 
repairs were carried out at a still later date. The 
only minor antiquities of interest in this building were 


28 debased silver coins of the Greek king Zoilus (PI. Ill, 
14). They were brought to light beneath the foundation 
of the earliest chapel, where they appear to have been 
deposited before the site was occupied by the Buddhists. 

The two small pits M* are of interest only as affording Two pits M*, 
some evidence as to the age when the Gandhara School 
of Axt was flourishing. They were used for the mixing 
of lime stucco and their floors were composed of 
Gandhara reliefs laid face downwards. As the reliefs 
in question were already in a sadly worn and damaged 
condition before they were let into the floor, it may 
safely be inferred that a considerable period — say a 
century or more — ^had elapsed between the time when 
they were carved and the construction of the pits. 
But from the character of their walls the latter appear 
to have been constructed in the 3rd or 4th century 
A.D. and it follows, therefore, that the reliefs cannot 
be assigned to a later date than the 2nd or 3rd century 
A.D. Evidence of a precisely similar character was 
also obtained from the chamber B^' on the eastern 
side of the Great Stupa. 

The complex of chambers G-'^ to G^ comprises Chapels G '' 
chapels erected at different periods and in different 
styles of m.asonry. From an architectural point of 
view they are in no way remarkable, but the chapel 
G^ merits notice, because it was here that one of the 
most interesting relics yet discovered in India was 
unearthed. The find was made near the back wall 
of the chapel opposite the Main Stupa and about a 
foot below the original floor. It consisted of a steatite 
vessel mth a silver vase inside, and in the vase an 
inscribed scroll and a small gold casket containing 


some minute bone relics. A heavy stone placed over 
the deposit had, unfortunately, been crushed down 
by the fall of the roof, and had broken both the steatite 
vessel and the silver vase, but had left the gold casket 
uninjured, and had chipped only a few fragments 
from the edge of the scroll, nearly all of which were 
Inscription OF f^tunately recovered (PI. VII). The inscription, 
THE YEAR 136. which is in the KharoshthI character and dated 
in the year 136 (circa 78 A.D.), records that the relics 
were those of the Lord Buddha himself. It reads 
as follows : — 

L. 1. Sa 100. 20. 10. 4. 1. 1. Ayasa Ashadasa 
masasa divase 10. 4. 1., isa divase pradistavita 
Bhagavato dhatu[o] Ura[sa] — 

L. 2. kena Lotaphria-jjulraiut Bahaliena Noachae 
nagare vastavena tena ime pradistavita Bhagavato dhatuo 
Dliamara — 

L. 3. ie Tachha'sie Tanuvae Bodhisatvagahami niaha- 
rajasa rajatirajasa devaputrasa Khushanasa aroga- 

L. 4. sarva-buddhana puyae pracluuja-hudhana puyae 
araJia[ta*]na puyae sarvasa [tva*] na puyae mata-pitu 
puyae mitra-maclm-nati-sa — 

L. 5. lolii[ta*'\na puyae atniano arogadacMinae nianae 
hotu [a], de samaparicJiago. 

" In the year 136 of Azes, on the IQth day of the 
month of Ashadha, on this day relics of the Holy One 
(Buddha) were enshrined by Urasakes(?), son of Lota- 
phria, a man of Balkh, resident at the town of Noacha. 
By him these relics of the Holy One were enshrined 
in the Bodhisattva chapel at the DJiarmardjikd sthpa 
in the district of Tanuva at Takshasila, for the bestowal 

Plate TII. 



i ^ =^ "^ r s- 

^ c^ JV- ^ ^ 


XV- cA >» c«4 «_ 

r. H» ]- <* :K> 

f' J^ jC ^ 





of perfect health upon the great king, king of kings, 
the divine Kushana ; for the veneration of all Biiddhas ; 
for the veneration of the private Buddhas ; for the 
veneration of arhats ; for the veneration of all sentient 
beings ; for the veneration of (his) parents ; for the 
veneration of (his) friends, advisers, kinsmen, and 
blood-relations, for the bestowal of perfect health upon 
himself. May this gift be ".^ 

In the chamber G*, on the highest floor level, 
were numerous kaiiiilr blocks belonging to a small 
stupa. These blocks were scattered in a heap on 
the floor defying any attempt to reconstruct from 
them the design of the stupa from which they had 
fallen. In one of the blocks were found two relic 
caskets of steatite. One of the caskets contained a 
smaller one of ivory, and in the latter waa a still smaller 
one of gold adorned with rough geometric and floral 
designs. Inside this gold casket were a piece of calcined 
bone, a small gold bead, and a number of small pearls 
of various sizes and shapes. In the other casket, 
which was shaped like a Greek pyxis, was a smaller 
silver box roughly ornamented and containing a 
smaller golden casket with some thin gold leaf and two 
pieces of calcined bone inside. 

It was in this block of buildings that there was 
also found, besides other antiquities, the bearded 
male head of terracotta figured in PI. VI d, the style 
of which differs markedly from the conventional style 
of the early mediseval period. 

■ This inscription was published ]>j the writer in J. R. A. S., 
October 1914, pp. 973-80. 


Chapel R*. The small circular stupa R* was, as I have stateij 
above, repaired and enlarged on several occasions. 
The first addition made to the original structure was 
a square base of neatly cut kaiijur blocks adorned 
with slender pilasters of the Corinthian order and a 
simple dentil cornice. Then came the two small 
square projections on the western face of this base ; 
and at the same time a shallow portico or chapel was 
formed against this western face by running out two 
short walls from the north-west and south-west corners 
of the stupa. Lastly, this portico or chapel was 
enlarged to about double its size by a further addition 
on the west. Now, the projections are built in a type 
of masonry which can be assigned \\ith some degree 
of certainty to the second century of our era. But 
contemporary with them are the very interesting 
stucco reliefs mth which they and the western face 
of the stupa base are adorned. That these sculptures 
belong to the Gandhara School of Art, a glance 
at them will suffice to show ; and we thus obtain here 
another useful link in the chain of evidence which 
determines the age when this school was flourishing. 
Observe the reliefs in the small recesses between the 
projections and side walls. One of them — on the south 
face of the south projections — portrays the departure 
of Gautama from Kapilavastu, accompanied, as usual in 
the Gandhara School, by the vajra-henTev. The other 
— on the northern face of the northern projection — 
portrays the horse Kaiithaka taking leave of his master. 
The animal is kneeling to kiss the feet of Gautama, 
while Chhandaka and another figure on the one side 
and the cajm-bearer on the other, look on. 


Besides these reliefs, numerous stucco and terracotta 
heads were found in the debris which had accumulated 
in and around this chapel. 

The building L, which stands immediately to the Buildino L, 
south of R\ was a dr;uble-chambered chapel standing 
on a high plinth, access to which was provided by a 
flight of steps on the northern side. All that is now 
left of it are the pliutl; walls constructed of large diaper 
masonry of the Kushan period, but round about the 
building were found numbers of Gandhara stone sculp- 
tures which had served to decorate the superstructure 
and which, there can be no doubt, were contemporary 
with it and therefore of the Kushan period. Two 
specimens of these carvings are illustrated in PI. VIII. 
They are as follows : — 

(a) Relief, 19 in. high, depicting, probably, the 
presentation of offerings to the Buddha, after his 
enlightenment. In the centre is Buddha seated cross- 
legged on a cushioned throne with his right hand 
raised in the attitude of protection [abhaya-nmdrd). 
To his proper right is the F«jVa-bearer holding the 
thunderbolt (vafra) in his right hand. In front of 
him are three female worshippers, bearing offerings of 
flowers or uncertain objects in their hands. To his 
proper left are fom: other worshippers, three with 
olierings, the fourth in an attitude of adoration 
(PI. VIII a). 

{b) Damaged rehef, 19 in. high, depicting Buddha's 
first sermon in the Deer Park near Benares. In the 
centre is Buddha seated crossed-legged on throne 
beneath a canopy of foliage and turning with his right 


hand the Wheel of the Law (dharma-chaha^), which is 
supported by a triratnci^ set on a low pedestal. On 
either side of the pedestal is a horned deer to symbolise 
the Deer Park. On the right and left of the Buddha, 
a Bodhisattva. Behind, on right, the Yajrafdni 
holding fly-whisk (chaun) in right hand and vajra in 
left. In front of him, two ascetics seated, and above, 
a heavenly musician {gandharva) flying (PL VIII b). 
In spite of the large number of Gandhara sculptm'es 
recovered, the inscribed records on them are rare and 
fragmentary. The most interesting is one engraved 
in Kharoshthi letters on the side of a stone lamp, 
which speaks of the " Agradharmarajika stiipa " at 
Apsidal On the western side of the site the most striking 

Temple 1 . gj^iigce in old days must have been the apsidal temple 
or ' Chaitya Plall,' where the faithful came together 
for their devotions. It dates from Kushan times and 
is built of large diaper masonry similar to that used 
in building L. In plan, the temple is generally similar 
to the ' Chaitya Halls ' excavated in the hill-sides at 
Karll, Ajanta, Ellora and other places in Western 
and Central India, but in this case the interior of the 
apse is octagonal instead of round. Inside the apse 
are the remains of an octagonal stupa of kaiijur 
stone, 2 ft. 6 in. below the base of which is a floor 

' Dliarma-chalra=' Wheel of the Law '. The teclinical expres- 
sion for Buddha's first sermon in the Deer Park (Mrigadciva) near 
Benares is Dharma-chaJcra-pravarlana, which literally means " the 
turning of the wheel of the law." Hence the symbol of the first 
sermon became a wheel, which is sometimes set on a throne and 
sometimes on a column. 

2 See p. 41, note 1. 







E^ ^ 

3 ^ 


wliicli must have been laid before the apsidal 
temple was built. From what remains of the nave, 
it appears to have consisted of nothing more than a 
passage corresponding in width with one side of the 
octagon and flanked liy very thick walls on either 
side. The temple is of special interest as being one 
of the very few structural Ijuildings of the kind known 
to exist in India, and the first to he discovered in 
Northern India. Since its excavation, however, aiiother 
and far more imposing example has been found in 
the city of Sirkap (p. 81). 

The last of the structtrres which wo shall notice Chapels E 
on this site is the range of small chapel cells (E and F^) '^*''° ^ • 
on the western edge of the plateau. The cells are 
raised on a plinth about 4 feet high and ascended by 
flights of steps on their eastern side. In two of tliem, 
namely : E^ and E", are the solid foundations of 
circular stupas descending to a depth of 10 ft. below 
the plinth level and evidently intended for the support 
of a heavy superstructure. A similar stupa with its 
superstructure still intact has been found in one of 
the cells of the monastery at Mohra Moradu (p. 108). 

In another of the chambers, F^, was a floor 
of glass tiles of bright azure blue with a few other 
colours — black, white and yellow — mixed with them. 
These tiles average lOJ in. square by 1^ in. thick 
and are of transparent glass, the first complete speci- 
mens of their kind which have yet come to light in 
India. In connexion vdth these tiles it is interesting 
to recall the Chinese tradition that glass making v.'as 
introduced into China from Northern India. The 
tiles were foucd laid in a somewhat carol r-ss manner 


on a bed of earth, and it was evident that they were 
not occupying the position for which they were origin- 
ally intended. Probably the}^ had been brought from 
the procession path of the Great Stupa (p. 38). 

From the Dharmarajika Stupa our way lies north- 
wards through a defile in the Hathial ridge and thence 
across the fields and up a steep hill-side to the Kunala 
stupa. The distance is about a mile and a quarter, 
and the track is rough and stony. 

Plate IX. 



Stupa op Kunala 

At the time when Hsiian Tsang visited Taxila, the Identification 
city of Sirkap had been deserted for more than five of the Stupa. 
centuries and its ramparts and buildings must long 
have been in ruins. The city in which the pilgrim 
himself sojom'ned, is the city now kno\\Ti as Sirsukh, 
where numerous structures of the early mediseval 
period are still traceable. In the neighbourhood of this 
city there were four famous Buddhist monuments 
which the pilgrim described. One of these was the 
tank of Elapatra, the Dragon King ; another was a 
stupa which marked the spot where, according to the 
Buddha's prediction, ' one of the four Great Treasures 
will be revealed when Maitreya appears as Buddha^ ; 
a third was the stiipa of the " sacrificed head," said to 
have been built by Asoka and situated at a distance 
of 12 or 13 li to the north of the capital ; the fourth 
was a stiipa also said to have been built by Asoka 
to commemorate the spot where his son Kunala had had 
his eyes put out. The first and second of these monu- 

1 The four Great Treasures referred to are those of Elapatra 
in Gandhara, Panduka in Mithila, Piigala in Kaliiiga, and Haiika 
in the Ka^i (Benares) country. 6'/. T. Wattcrs, On Yuan C'Incaiuj. 
p. 243. 

59 e2 


ments were rightly identified many years ago by General 
Cunningham : the one with the sacred tank now known 
as the Paiija Sahib at Hasan Abdal, the other with a 
ruined stiipa which cro'svns the ridge above BaotI Find. 
As to the other two, Cunningham laboured under the 
false idea that the city which Hsiian Tsang visited was 
the city on the Bhir mound instead of in Sirsukh, and 
he could not, therefore, but fail to identify the location 
of the two stiipas. Now that we know that the earliest 
city of Taxila was on the Bhir mound and the latest 
in Sirsukh, it is clear that the stupa of the " sacrificed 
head " is none other than the Bhallar Stupa, which 
occupies a commanding position on the extreme western 
spur of the Sarda hill, and it is probable that the 
memorial of Kunala's misfortune is the stupa which 
occupies a hardly inferior position on the northern slopes 
of Hathial, commanding a splendid view of the lower city 
of Sirkap and of the whole of the Haro valley (PI. X). 
ITsiian Tsang describes this stiipa as being above 100 
ft. high, and situated to the south-east of the city 
of Takshasila on the north side of the south hill. The 
blind, he says, came here to pray, and many had their 
jyrayers answered by the restoration of their sight. ^ 
He then proceeds to narrate the story of Kunala : 
of how his stepmother Tishyarakshita fell in love with 
hira and induced Asoka to send him as Viceroy to 
Takshasila ; of how she then wrote a despatch in her 
husband's name and sealed it with the seal of his teeth 
while he slept, bringing accusations against Kunala 
and ordering his eyes to be put out ; of how the minis- 

' CJ. 1. Watters, On Yuan Chning, Vol. I, pp. 245 sq. 



fcers shrank from executing the order, but the prince 
himself insisted on obedience to his father ; of how he 
then wandered forth with his wife and begged his way 
to the far-oii capital of his father ; of how his father 
recognised him by his voice and the strains of his lute ; 
and of how the cruel and vindictive queen was put 
to death and the prince's eye-sight restored at Eodh- 
Gaya through the help of the Buddhist Arhat Ghosha.^ 
The southern hill referred to by Hsiian Tsang can 
only be the hill of Hathial which bounds the Haro 
valley on the south ; and the most conspicuous stupa 
on its northern side is the one on the northernmost 
ridge erected almost directly over the remains of 
the old wall of Sirkap. This stupa rests on a lofty Desckiptic 
rectangular base which measures 63 ft. 9 in. from 
east to west bj^ 105 ft. 1 in. from norLh to south and 
was provided v/ith a stepijed approach at its northern 
end. The bass rises in three terraces, the lowermost 

' In its essence Uic story of Kunala and Tishyaraksliiti is Iho 
same as that of Hippolytus and Pliaedra, and it is not unlikely 
that it was derived from tlio classical Greek legend. Such legends 
must hare been familiar enough among the Eurasian Greeks in the 
north-west of India. Witness, for example, the drama of Antigone 
portraj'ed on a vase found at Peshawar. Some versions of the 
story represent Asoka as sending his son to restore order in Tak- 
sliasila on the advice of a Minister of State, not through the in- 
strumentality of TishyarakshitS, and in some versions the prince dies 
after his return home without any miracle transpiring to restore 
his eye-sight. His real name was Dharma\'ivardhana and his 
father called him Kunala because his eyes were small and beautiful, 
like those of the Hiniavat bird of that name. The blinding of the 
prince was the outcome of evil karma wrought in a previous exist- 
ence. According to one story, he had blinded 500 deer ; according 
to another, an arhat ; or, according to the Avadanakalpalata, he 
had taken the eyes (relics) out of a chaitya. Ghosha, the name of 
the arhat who restored his eye-sight to Kunala, was also the name 
of a famous oculist of this district. Gf .T. Watters, he. cU. 


of which is relieved by a series of stunted Corinthian 
pilasters resting on an elaborated " torus and scotia" 
moulding and foiTQsrly surmounted by a dentil cornice 
and copings, with Hindu brackets of the " notched " 
variety intervening between the capitals and the 
cornice. The middle terrace is plain, but covered 
with a coating of plaster. The uppermost terrace 
was decorated in much the same way as the lowest 
one, but was nearl}^ three times as high ; and the 
base mouldings and entablature were proportionately 
more massive and elaborate. 

Of the superstructure of this monument only a 
fragment of the core has survived in situ, but the form 
and construction of the terraced base, coupled with 
the style of the decorative details, leave no room for 
doubt that the Kunala Stupa is of the same age as the 
gTcat Bhallar Stupa on the opjposite side of the valley ; 
and to judge by the character of the many architectural 
members belonging to the upper part of the structure 
which were lying in considerable numbers round its 
base, it seems fairly safe to conclude that the elevation 
of the drum and dome resembled that of the Bhallar 
Stupa ; in other words, that the drum was circular 
and strikingly lofty in proportion to the size of the 
monument and that it was divided into six or seven 
tiers, sHghtly receding one above the other, which were 
adorned with rows of pilasters, fi'iezes and dentil cornices 
in much the same fashion as the terraces of the base. 
As in the Bhallar Stupa, too, as well as in other stupas 
of this date, the rehc chamber was no doubt placed 
near the top of the edifice ; for no trace of any chamber 
was found in or below the plinth of the building. 


A remarkable feature of this monument is the 
dehcate concave curvature of the plinth. The western 
side of the stupa, for example, measured in a straight 
line from end to end, is 74 ft. 10 m. long ; but the 
line thus drawn does not coincide with the actual 
line of the plinth, which recedes gradually inwards 
towards the centre, the greatest distance between the 
arc and the chord being three inches. It is well 
known, of course, that entasis of the columns and cur- 
vature of other lines, horizontal as well as perpendi- 
cular, was systematically employed in Greek archi- 
tecture in order to correct the apparent defects caused 
by optical illusions ; and it may be that the idea was 
introduced from Western Asia, along with the many 
other Hellenistic features which characterise the archi- 
tecture of Taxila and the North- West. But, if this 
was so, it would appear that the optical principles 
which underlay the idea could not have been properly 
understood by the builders of the Kunala Stupa ; for 
in this case the concave curvature has the effect 
of exaggerating the illusion, instead of correcting it. 

This stiipa, which I assign to the third or fourth 
century A.D., was not the earhest monument to be 
erected on this interesting site. Buried in the core of 
the structm'e and towards its north-west corner, was 
found another and very much smaller stupa which 
appears from its style to have been erected in the 
first century A.D., at a time when the city wall 
alongside of it on the east was still standing intact. 
This older edifice is perched on a small rocky eminence 
and is standing to a height of 9 ft. 8 in. It is 
constructed of rough blocks of limestone and con- 


sists of a sfjuare plinth with drum and dome above, 
the only feature that has disappeared being the crown- 
ing umbrella. Originally the rough masonry was 
covered with lime plaster on which the mouldings and 
other decorative details were worked, but all the plaster 
has now fallen from the sides. 
MoNAbTEKY. Immediately to the west of the Kunala Stupa and 
at a slightly higher level is a spacious and sohdly built 
monastery in the semi-ashlar stjde, which is manifestly 
contemporary with the later sttipa. It is standing to 
a lieiglit of between 13 and li feet and consists, appa- 
rently, of two courts — the larger to the north and the 
smaller to the south, the total length of the exterior 
wall opposite the stupa being about 192 feet, and the 
width of the larger court about 155 feet. The larger 
court is of the usual form (chaluhs'cda) with an open 
rectangle in the centre surrounded by a raised verandah 
and cells. In the cells are small arched niches for the 
reception of lamps. Only the east side of this monastery 
has yet been excavated and even on this side the digging 
has not yet been carried down to the floor level of 
the cells. 



Before descending into the lower city of Sirkap City wall 
we sliall halt for a moment at the fortifications on the 
eastern side of the cit,y, a short section of which has 
recently been excavated. These fortifications are 
constructed of rubble masonry throughout, like other 
structures of the GJreek and Scytho-Parthian epochs, 
and vary in thickness from 15 ft. to 21 ft. C in. 
They arc strengthened at iiitcrvals by solid bastions, 
which, so far as they have been examined, arc 
rectangular in plan. In some cases the bastions arc 
further supported )jy sloping buttresses which were 
apparently added at a later date. The height of the 
walls and bastions was probably between 20 and 30 
feet, and it may be assumed that the bastions were 
built in two storeys, of which the upper was doubtlesa 
hollow and loopholcd. The walls between the bastions 
would also be loopholed above and provided with a 
terrace on the inner side for the use of the defenders. 

As stated in the first chapiter (p. 4), the city of 
Sirkap appears to have been founded during the supre- 
macy of the Indo-Greeks in the second century B.C. 
and to have remained in occupation during the Scytho- 



Parthian and Kushaii epochs until the reign of 
Wima-Ivadphises. Of the buildings hitherto excavated 
inside its walls those in the uppermost stratum apper- 
tain mainly to the Early Kushan and Parthian settle- 
ments. Below them is a stratum of remains which 
are assignable probably to the Scythian epoch, and 
below these, again, two more strata belonging to the 
Greek era, after which virgin soil is reached at a depth 
of between 14 and 17 feet. Of the pre-Parthian re- 
mains our information, as yet, is relatively meagre, 
since the digging has been chiefly confined to the 
remains nearest the surface, the object in view being 
to obtain as clear an idea as possible of the lay-out 
of the city in Parthian and Kushan days before opening 
up the structures beneath, and thereby not only con- 
fusing the plan but possibly jeopardising the safety 
of the buildings. 

From the bird's-eye view of the excavations which 
he got from the stupa of Kiuiala, the visitor will have 
observed that they extend in a broad strip from the 
northern wall right through the heart of the lower city, 
and that they comprise a long section of the High Street 
running due north and south together with several 
large blocks of buildings on either side of it. Am oner 
these buildings is a spacious Apsidal Temple of the 
Buddhists and several small shrines belonging either 
to the .Jaina or to the Buddhist faith ; but most of them 
are dweUing houses or shops of the citizens, and one, 
distinguished from the rest by its size and by the 
massiveness of its construction, is almost certainly a 
P.4LACE. palace. This last named building is at the south 
end of the excavations and the first to be reached 


after leaving the Kunala Stupa. It stood almost at 
the corner, where the two streets from the North and 
West Gates must have met, and thus occupied a 
commanding position in the lower city. On the 
western side, which faces the High Street, it has a 
frontage of 352 feet, and from west to east it measures 
250 feet, but its eastern limits have not yet been 
reached. The oldest parts of the palace are constructed 
of a rough rubble masonry and date probably from 
the Scytho-Parthian era, but there are numerous later 
repairs and apparently several additions, particrilarly 
in the Zenana apartments on the north, though they 
cannot always be distinguished with precision. In 
courts of special importance, as for instance in the 
large court marked C^^, an ashlar facing of kanjur 
stone is also employed, while some of the thresholds 
consist of blocks of limestone. In many of the 
courts and rooms chases indicate that beams were 
let into the walls and wooden panelling probably 
affixed thereto. In other chambers the surface of 
the walls was covered with lime or mud plaster, no 
doubt finished with a coating of paint. 

So far as it has been exposed, the palace consists 
of five series of apartments arranged in groups around 
a central court. The plan of these can best be appre- 
ciated by standing on the wall in the middle of the 
Palace at the point marked X in the plan (PI. XI). 
The large court in the centre of the west side, together 
with the chambers round about it, contained the chief 
living rooms, one of which (B^^) is a bathroom with a 
small tank in the middle and a channel to carry off 
the water. This com't is paved with irregular blocks 


of limestone and on its southern side is a raised dars 
with a frontage of 27 ft. 10 in. and a depth of 20 
ft. 5 in. This probably was the court of private 
audience (Diwan-i-Khass). To the south of this court 
.is a smaller court (C^'') with chambers round about, 
which probably served for the retainers and guard. 
On the opposite or north side of the main court is 
another large group of chambers which were the zenana 
quarters of the women, separated from the rest of 
the palace by substantial walls. Beyond them, again, 
to the north are other chambers which appear to have 
been added later. On the east side of the ]ialace are 
two more groups of apartments. The group on the 
south consists of a spacious court with chambers on 
the west and a raised dais, which no doubt supported 
an open hall, on the south. This court seems to have 
been used for serni-oflicial or public pirrposes (Diwaa-i- 
lAmm), the rooms aroujid it doing duty as offices. Lead- 
ing off from it on its north side is another complex 
of rooms which probably served as reception rooms for 
guests. The rooms in this court arc less regularly 
built and somewhat smaller than in the rest of the 

Although this palace is considerably larger and 
built more snlistaritially than the private houses, 
there is nothing at all pretentioirs in its planning or 
sumptuous in its adornment. This is a feature which 
is specially commented on by Philostratus, the bio- 
grapher of Apollonius, who says, when speaking of the 
palace, that they saw no magnificent architecture 
there, and that the men's chambers and the porticoes 
and the whole of the vestibule were very chaste in 




style. 1 These remarks of Philostratus are valuable 
as affording another proof of the substantial correctness 
of his account of Taxila, which, as we shall presently 
see,2 finds somewhat remarkable corroboration in the 
peculiar character of the private houses. 

In spite, however, of the palace being so bare and 
unadorned, its remains are singularly interesting, if 
only for the sake of the plan they disclose — the first 
plan of a building of this kind v/hich has yet been 
recovered iu India ; and this interest is still farther 
increased when we reahse that, so far as it has been 
exposed, the plan bears a striking resemblance to those 
of the Assyrian palaces of Mesopotamia. This will 
best be understood by comparing it with the palace, 
for example, of Sargon at Khorsabad.^ In the latter 
we have the same great court surrounded by chambers, 
and on the one side of it, the same court for retainers ; 
on the other, the apartments of the zeirana. Here, also, 
we have the other half of the palace occupied, just 
as it is at Taxila, by reception and public rooms. In 
the palace of Sargon there is aiiother block of apartments 
farther out on this side, at the point v.diere some more 
chambers are also beginning to appear iu the palace at 
Taxila. The Zikurrat tower, which in the palace of 
Sargon was placed at the side of the zenana, is a feature 
which appertains peculiarly to the Assyrian religion. 
Whether it will be found in the Taxila Palace, 
remains to be seen. Possibly it may prove, as the 
excavation advances, that its place was taken by 

1 Philostratus, op. at. 13k. II, Cli. XXV. 

2 P. 71. 

" Perrot and C^hipicz, lliMoirc de V Arl aiiliqve, Tume II, PI. V, 



some other sacred edifice. That a palace at Taxila 
of the Greek, Saka or Pahlava period should have 
been planned on the sanae lines as an Assyrian palace 
of Mesopotamia need occasion no surprise, when we 
bear in mind the vitality and persistency of the in- 
fluence which Assyria exerted upon Persia, Bactria and 
the neighbouring countries. But it certainly gives an 
added interest to these buildings and helps us in our 
efforts to disentangle the archaeological problems of 
this period. 

The small antiquities found in this palace consist of 
terracottas and potteries, various small bronze, copper 
and iron objects, beads, gems and coins. Among the 
last mentioned was a deposit of 61 copper coins of 
Azes I, Azes II and Aspavarma, Gondopharnes, Her- 
maeus and Kadphises I. One find of special interest that 
deserves to be mentioned here, was a number of 
earthenware moulds for casting coins, which were 
found in a room or shop just outside the palace 
and near its south-west corner. The coins, of which 
the impress is clear in many of the moulds, are those 
of Azes II. Probably the moulds belonged to the 
S plant of some forger of the Pahlava epoch. Eight 
of them are complete and twenty broken. 
Plan of Houses. Proceeding from the palace down the High Street 
in the direction of the North Gate of the city, we come 
to several large blocks of dwelhngs, separated one 
from the other by narrow side streets. ^ Although 

1 It will be noticed that both streets and houses rise higher and 
higher as they recede from the High Street. The reason of this is 
that the High Street was kept clear of debris, while the debris on 
either side of it was steadily accumulating. 


the plans of these houses exhibit considerable variety, 
they were all based on the same principles. The 
unit of their design, that is to say, is the open quad- 
rangle surrounded by chambers (chaluhsdla) , just as 
it is in the palace described above, and this unit is 
repeated two, three, four or more times according to 
the amount of accommodation required by the occu- 
pants, the small rooms fronting on to the street being 
usually reserved for shops. The walls are constructed 
either of rough rubble or of the diaper masonry which 
came into fashion at the beginning of the Kushan 
period ; and both inner and outer faces were covered 
with lime and mud plaster, to which traces of paint 
are still found adhering. Wood was used for the 
fittings, such as doors and windows, as well as for 
roof timbers, and in some cases, apparently, for 
panelling on the walls. The fact that no tiles have 
been found in any of these houses indicates that 
the roofs were flat and covered with mud. A 
remarkable feature of these houses is that, although 
is some cases there are doors communicating between 
two or more rooms, there are no doors giving 
direct access from these rooms to the interior 
court or to the streets outside — the practice having 
apparently been to enter these lower chambers by 
means of stairways or ladders descending from 
the rooms above. This practice is alluded to by 
Philostratus, who says that the houses are so 
constructed that, if you look at them from the 
outside, they appear to have only one storey, but, if 
you go into them, you find in reality that they have 
underground rooms the depth of which is equal to the 


height of the chambers above. ^ As a matter of fact, the 
lower floor of the houses is not actually underground, 
but anyone seeing only a single row of windows from 
the street, and having to descend from the upper 
chambers into the iaJil-Jidiids below, which were un- 
provided with doors or windows, might well be excused 
for calling them underground cellars. 

Another noticeable feature of the Sirkap dwellings 
is the amount of accommodation provided in them, 
which, even if they were not more than two storeys, 
was greater than a single family in that age would be 
rkely to require. It may be that, like the " insulae " 
of ancient Eome or the blocks of tenements in many 
Itahan and other cities of to-day, they were occupied 
by several families together ; but it is also a plausible 
hypothesis that this quarter of the city was the Uni- 
versity- quarter, and that these were the houses of the 
professors and their pirpils, who would certainly need 
more accommodation than coirld be obtained in any 
ordi)iary dwelling. 

Of the stupas referred to there are two typical 
examples — both probably of Jaina origin.^ The one in 
Shrine in block G — the first block to which we come on the 
Block G. rigljt (east) side of the High Street — stands in a court- 
yard facing the street and consists of a small rectan- 

1 Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Ttjana, Bk. II, Ch. XXIII, 
^ The Fame of Taxila as a University city belongs to an 

earlier age, riz., the age o£ the Jatakas, but it is not unreasonable 

to avsurae that it still continued a scat of learning up to the lirst 

century of our era. 
^ ^ The reason for regarding these stiipas as of Jaina rather than 

Buddhist origin, is that they closely resemble certain Jaina stiipas 

depicted in reliefs from JIatiiura. 


gular base adorned witli a series of five pilasters on 
each side, with a simple base moulding, and with a 
cornice relieved by the familiar " bead and reel " 
pattern. The drum, dome and umbrella of this stilpa 
have fallen, but parts of them were unearthed in 
the debris of the courtyard, along with fiortions 
of two Persepolitan columns with crowning lions^ 
which used to stand, probably, on the corners of the 
base, and numerous members of the balustrade which 
ran around its edge, lu the centre of the base and 
at a depth of about 4 feet from its top was a small 
relic chamber, and within this chamber was a steatite 
casket containing eight copper coins of the Scythian 
king Azes I, and a smaller casket of gold, in which 
were some fragments of calcined bone, small pieces of 
gold leaf, and cornelian and agate beads. Azes I came 
to the throne about the year .58 B.C., and this stupa 
probably dates, therefore, from the latter jjart of that 

Close by the south side of the staircase is a 
small square plinth, the purpose of which is doubtful. 
A plinth of a similar kind occurs at the shrine in 
block G and at the bigger stupa at Janclial. Judging 
from their superficial character, it seems hardly likely 
that they were intended to sustain the weight of a 
column. They may, perhaps, have served as the bases 
of lampstands. 

The stupa in the next block (F), which belongs to Shkine of the 
the same period, is a somewhat more pretentious ^°^-'^'"'^^'^^*'^'^_'^ „ 
building (PI. XII). On the front fajade of the building 

1 Imitated no doubt from tho pdlars which the Emperor Afojka 
set up at many of the most famoiLs Buddliiat stnpaa. 


all the pilasters are of the Coriuthian order, two having 
rounded and the remainder flat shafts. The interspaces 
between these pilasters are relieved by niches of three 
varieties. The two nearest the steps resemble the 
pedimental fronts of Greek buildings ; those in the 
centre are surmounted by ogee arches like the familiar 
" Bengal " roofs ; and those at the corner take the 
forms of early Indian toranas, of which many examples 
are portrayed on the sculptures of Mathura.i Perched 
above each of the central and outer niches is a bird, 
apparently an eagle, and it will be observed that one 
of these eagles is double-headed. The presence of 
this motif at Taxila is interesting. It is known to 
occur for the first time in Hittite sculptures from 
Western Asia ; and it is found also on an early ivory 
of the Geometric period from Sparta. But later on 
it seems to have been esi^ecially associated with the 
Scythians, and we may well believe that it was the 
Scythians who introduced it at Taxila. From the 
Scythians, probably, it was adopted into the Imperial 
Arms of Eussia and Germany, and from Taxila it found 
its way to Vijayanagar and Ceylon. 

The whole facing of kaiijur stone, including mould- 
ings and other decorations, was originally finished 
with a thin coat of fine stucco and, as time went on, 
numerous other coats were added, several of which, 
when first excavated, showed traces of red, crimson 
and yellow paint. Both drum and dome were pro- 
bably adorned with decorations executed in stucco 
and painted, and the dome was surmounted by three 

1 Cf. V. A. Smith, Jain Slilpa and other Antiquilies of J\Ialhura. 
V\. XII. 

Plate XII. 


umbrellas. At the edge of the steps and round the 
base of the stupa was a low wall decorated on the 
outside with the usual Buddhist railing, parts of which 
were found in the courtyard below. A good idea of 
the appearance of the stupa, when intact, may be 
obtained from a relief of the Mathura School published 
in V. A. Smith's Jain Stupa and other Antiquities of 
Mathura, PI. XII, which appears to have been executed 
at no great length of time after the erection of this 
building. But in this relief the style of the stupa is 
more pronouncedly Indian than the stupa in Sirkap. 
In the latter, the whole basis of the decorative design is 
Hellenistic, the mouldings, pilasters, dentil cornice and 
pedimental niches being all classical, while the only 
Indian features are such subsidiary details as the 
torana, the ogee-arched niche and the brackets above 
the pilasters. It remains to add that the chamber 
containing the relics in this stupa was found in the 
centre of the base at a depth of 3 ft. 2 in. below its 
top, but it had long since been rifled of its contents. 
In the block of buildings (F) to which this shrine 
belongs a discovery of considerable value was made in 
the shape of an Aramaic inscription carved on what Aeamaic 

, , , , 1-11 t ^ -^ INSCRIPTION. 

appears to have been an octagonal pillar oi wnite 
marble (PL Xllla). This inscription was found built 
into the wall between two chambers, «^ and a^, in the 
north-west corner of the block, and, inasmuch as these 
chambers date approximately from the reign of Azes 
I, it must have been buried in its present worn and 
broken condition before the beginning of the Christian 
era. The letters as well as the language are Aramaic 
and of a type which is to be assigned to the fourth 



centurj' B.C. but the meaning of the record is still a 
matter of uncertainty. Dr. L. D. Baniet and Prof. 
Cowley interpret it as referring to the erection of a 
palace of " cedar and ivory, "^ but according to another 
interpretation it relates to a j^rivate compact and the 
penalty to be paid for breaking it. The discovery of 
this inscription is of special interest in connexion with 
the origin of the Kharoshthi alphabet, since it confirms 
the view that Kharoshthi was derived at Taxila (which 
was the chief city of the Kharoshthi district) from 
Aramaic, the latter having been introduced into the 
North-West of India hj the Achaemenids after their 
conquest of the country about 500 B.C. 

Minor antiqtji- The minor antiquities recovered from these and 

TIES OF SiEK.vp. other houses in Sirkap are many and various. They 
include large collections of earthenware vessels of 
nirmerous shapes and sizes, from lamps and drinking 
^ goblets and incense burners up to the great store- 

jars, three to foiu' feet in height, in v/hich grain, oil 
and the hke were kept ; terracotta figiu'ines and toys ; 
srone bowls, goblets, decorated jjlaques and dishes ; 
iron vessels and utensils, among which are folding 
chairs, tripod stands, horse's bridles, keys, sickles, 
spades, swords, daggers, shield bosses and arrow- 
heads ; bronze and copper cups, lamps, caskets, scent 
bottles, ornamental pins, bells, finger rings ; several 
thousands of coins and numerous pieces of gold and 
silver jewellery. A description of these many classes 
of antiquities is beyond the scope of this guide book, 

Jewht.lery from but there are two finds of gold and silver jewellery 

House E. 

1.7. R.A. S. 191.-., pp. .340-7. 

Plate XIII 

/,// SIJ!h'Al': AHAMA/C 

I hi JAi'ijAX: srrpA 




1 .J. _ 


~-\ \ \ 


1 ^ -^ ' ■ 



1 , 


"i — V' 
— U- i--- 

' ' "1 



! t 
t-- t- — - ■ 

; 1 . 

— \ 




wliich deserve particular mention, both because of 
their intrinsic value and interest, and because the 
objects comprised in them have been removed to 
Lahore, where manj^ visitors to Taxila may not perhaps 
have an opportunity of seeing them. Both finds were 
made in Block E, the one in chamber C-^' in the 
second or Scythe- Parthian stratum and the other at a 
slightly higher level on the north side of the central 
courtyard (PI. XIV). The objects recovered were as 
follows :— 

From Chamber C^^. 

Bronze statuette of the child-god Harpocratcs, 
holding a linger to his lips in token of silence. In the 
left hand he carried some object, possibly a flower, 
which has disappeared. Late Hellenistic work (PI. 

About two feet below this statuette in the same 
chamber was brought to light an earthen jar closed at 
the top with a disc and containing the objects enu- 
merated below. The disc is composed of two thin 
plates, iron on the inside, silver on the outside, ri vetted 
at the edge with silver nails. Originally, it may have 
done duty as the boss of a shield. 

Head of Dionysus in silver repousse, with stand 
beneath. 1 The head of the god is bald on top and 
wreathed with a grape-vine. His ears are pointed. 
In his right hand he holds a two-handled wine-cup 
(cantliarus). Behind the head passes the curved staff 
{ihijrsas) with a bell suspended at its end. The front 

1 The stand is not illustrated m PI. 1. 


of the stand is adorned with a conventional palmette 
and rosette ; behind it, is a curved projection which 
enabled the head to be set in a slanting position on 
the table. The relief is Hellenistic in style and of 
very high class workmanship (Frontispiece). 

3. Silver spoon, with handle terminating in a 
cloven hoof and attached to the back of the spoon by 
a " rat-tail " ridge. Greek pattern. Precisely similar 
spoons have been found at Pompeii (PI. XVI, 15). 

4. Two pairs of gold bangles. The ends were 
closed with separate discs of beaten gold. 

5. Pair of gold ear-rings, provided with clasp 
attached by ring hinge. The clasp is of a double 
horse-shoe design ornamented with cincjuefoil rosettes, 
two hearts and strap. The hearts and rosettes were 
formerly inlaid with paste, which has now perished 
(PI. XVI, 1 and 2). 

6. Two ear-pendants of gold. They are composed 
of rings decorated on the outside with double rows 
of beads and granules, with granulated bud-like drops 
depending from them (PI. XVI, 3 and 5). 

7. Flower-shaped pendant of gold, composed of 
SIX petals, backed by granulated ribbings and sis- 
smaller heart-shaped petals at their base, one inlaid 
with paste or jewels. Attached to the hps of the 
larger leaves is a ring with granulated edge, from 
which chains were suspended with bells at their ends 
(PI. XVI, 4). 

8. Plain gold finger ring, with flattened bezel 
engraved with Kharoshthi legend, " Sadardasa (?) " 
and Nandipada symbol (PI. XVI, 6). 

9. Gold hoop finger ring, with oval bezel enclosing 


t'77>7r J I'- V7/-iTTl-.'h^ /J// U J fl'llflf I 7'/;,S'. 





cornelian engraved with cornucopia, fluted vase, and 
spear in the Hellenistic style (PI. XVI, 7). 

10. Gold hoop finger ring, with oval bezel enclosing 
silver inlay. The device on the silver is too corroded 
to be distinguished (PI. XVI, 8). 

11. Gold hoop finger ring, with flat rectangular 
bezel and clusters of four drops on either side. The 
inlaid stone is lapis-lazuli, engraved with the figure 
of a warrior armed with spear and shield and an 
early Brahmi inscription to his proper left. The 
style of the engraving is Hellenistic. The inscription 
reads : — . . . . samanavasa (PI. XVI, 9). 

12. Gold chain, composed of four double plaits, 
fitted with ring at one end and hook at the other 
(PI. XVII, 8). 

13. Six cylindrical pendants belonging to necklace. 
The casing is gold open-work of various reticulated 
designs, enclosing cores of turquoise paste, green jasper, 
and other stones. Attached to each are two small 
rings for suspension (PL XVII, 7). 

14. Seven open-work gold beads, probably inlaid 
with paste (PI. XVII, 6). 

15. Pair of gold ear-rings, bound with wire at ends 
(PI. XVII, 4 and 5). 

16. Gold ear-ring of eoarse workmanship (PI. 
XVII, 3). 

17. Oval locket of gold. The jewel is missing from 
the centre. 

18. Pair of diamond-shaped attachments, probably 
for ear-rings, of gold inlaid with garnets en c&buclion 
(PI. XV.U, 9). 


19. Pair of hollow club-shaped gold pendants 
(PI. XVII, 10). 

20. 60 hollow gold beads, round and of varying 
sizes (PI. XVII, 13^ 

The articles contained in the above deposit appear 
to have been buried during the 1st century B.C. But 
a number of these articles had then been in use for a 
considerable time, as is proved by the extent to which 
they had been worn. I assign the bronze statuette to 
the 1st century B.C. and the lapiz-lazuli ring and the 
head of Dion}^sus, which is certainly the finest example 
of Greek work: yet discovered in India, to the previous 

From the north side of Central Courtyard. 

21. Gold repousse figure of winged ^Aphrodite or 
Psyche (PI. XVII, 11). 

22. Round gold repousse medallion. In centre, 
winged Cupid dancing, encircled by flowing lilies. This 
and the previous figure are of coarse workmanship, 
made apparently by beating a thin gold plate into a 
mould (PI. XVII, 12). 

23. Nine oval-shaped jacinths cut en cahuclion and 
hollowed behind. They are engraved with various 
intaglio figures of victory, Eros, busts, etc. 

21. One flat cornelian ditto, with bust intaglio. 

25. Three garnets en cahuchon, dot and comma 
shape, used for ijilay. 

26. Two oval glass gems — (a) with flat face banded 
in green, white and blue ; engraving indistinct ; (b) 

Plate XVII. 



en cabuchoH, of dull brown glass ; engraving indistinct. 

27. 74 pieces of gold necklace. Bach piece is ]iollow 
and pierced laterally for two strings (PI. XVII, 14). 

28. Pieces of turquoise paste and crystal cut en 
cabuclion and flat, in various designs. These as well 
as the gems enumerated above, appear to have been 
used for inlaying. 

29. 21 silver coins of new types belonging to the 
Parthian kings, Sasan, Sapedanes, and Satavastra and 
the Kushan king, Kadphises II (?). 

In the block of buildings opposite to E, on the west- 
ern side of the High Street, a noteworthy featru'e is the 
stQpa at the south-east comer, access to which is 
provided on the east side bj' a double flight of seven 
steps faced with squared kafijur masonry. The plinth 
of this stiipa is composed of thick walls of stone radi- 
ating from the middle with the interspaces between 
them filled with debris. A pit sunk in the centre of 
this core revealed a square chamber at a depth of 
between seven and eight feet below the surface ; but, 
unfortunately, the chamber had been broken into and 
rifled in days long gone by. 

The next building on the east side of the High Apsiual Temple 
Street is the Great Apsidal Temple of the Buddhists to ■'^• 
which I referred on p. 57. This temple, the plan of 
which will be apparent from Plate XIV, faces to the 
west. It stands in a spacious rectangular courtyard 
with two raised platforms to right and left of the 
entrance of the temple and rows of cham))ers for the 
monks against the west compound wall. The temple 


was built on the ruius of earlier buildings of tlie 
Scytho-Parthian epoch, and with a view to providing 
a level court and at the same time adding to the im- 
pressiveness of the building, these earlier structures 
were filled in with debris and a raised terrace was 
thus created, access to which was provided by two 
flights of steps on the street front. The platforms to 
the right and left (C^ and C^) as one enters the court, 
are the foundations of two small stupas, amid the fallen 
masonry of which were found numerous stucco and 
terracotta heads and other decorative objects which 
had once served to adorn the edifices. One of them, 
a stucco head of a Greek Satyr with pointed ears, is 
illustrated in PI. XVI, 16. 

The value of these terracottas and stuccos is all 
the greater because their date can be fixed with ap- 
proximate certainty. In the debris of the courtyard 
both here and at other spots numerous coins were 
unearthed belonging mainly to Kujula-Kadphises and 
Hermasus, with a few of earlier date mingled with 
them. From these it may be inferred that the build- 
ing was already falling to decay in the latter part of 
the 1st century A.D. 

In the middle of the court stands the great Apsidal 
Temple, and just as the court is raised above the level 
of the street, so the temple itself is raised on a plinth 
well above the level of the court. It consists of a 
spacious nave^ with a porch in front and a circular 

' Gen. Cunningham found in the nave the remains of some 
colossal figures of burnt clay. The apse he took to bo a circular 
well or underground room, diBtinct from the temple. C/. C.S.R., 
1863-4, pp. 127-8. 


apse behind, the whole surrounded by an ambulatory 
passage {prachkshind), to which access was gained 
from the front porch. The plan, in fact, is generally 
similar to that of the Sudama cave in the Barabar 
hills, 1 but in the latter case there was no porch in 
front and no passage around the outside of the chambers. 
In the middle of the apse, which measures 29 feet in 
diameter, there must originally have been a stupa, 
but treasure-seekers of some bygone age had utterly 
destroyed it. 

The exceptional depth (22 ft.) of the foundations of 
the apse is explained partly by the excessive weight of 
the superstructure, partly by the fact that they had to 
be carried through the loose debris of earher structures, 
until virgin soil was reached. 

Near the old floor level is a curious horizontal break 
in the masonry of the walls, which is now filled with 
earth. This break marks the position where timbering, 
which has since decayed, was originally inserted in the 
stone work. 

As to the elevation of this temple, it is impossible to 
speak with certainty, but it may plausibly be surmised 
that the pradalshmd passage was lit by windows pierced 
in its outer walls, as was the case with the temple at 
Jandial to be described presently, and that light into 
the nave and apse was admitted through the western 
doorway or a window above it. The roof appears to 
have been of wood covered with earth, as is indicated 
by the remains of timber and a large number of 
iron nails, bolts, clamps, etc., found in the debris. 

1 Cf. Furgusaon, Indian and Eastern Architecture, Vol. I, p. 130. 


StOpa Court A. Of tlie buildings between the Apsidal Temple and 
tlie northern wall of the City, there is none that calls 
for particular notice except the large court with a 
square stupa in its centre on the east side of the High 
Street. This court differs from those previously de- 
scribed both in being more spacious and in having a 
number of living cells disposed aromid its four sides. 
Possibly it was intended rather for public, and the 
others rather for private worship. The stirpa in the 
centre had been despoiled of its relics ; but the relic 
chamber still contained, among other objects, some 
broken pieces of what must once have been a singularly 
beautiful crystal casket, the fine workmanship of which 
suggests that it dates from the Maurya age. From the 
fragments remaining it is evident that the casket, when 
intact, would have been too large to go inside the 
relic chamber ; and it must be inferred, therefore, that 
it was enshrined there in its present broken condition. 
The probability is that the relics deposited here were 
taken from some much older monument and that the 
crystal casket in which they had reposed having been 
broken, the fragments of it were scrupulously pre- 
served. That contact with the relics would invest 
such fragments ^\'ith a special sanctity is clear from the 
story of the Brahman Drona, who at the division of the 
rehcs of the Buddha, received as his share the casket in 
which the Mallas had placed them ; and it is proved 
also by the discovery of similar fragments in stiipas at 
Saiichi, Sarnath and elsewhere. 

City C4ate. When their excavation is complete, the north gate 

of Sirkap and the adjoining fortifications wUl pro- 
bably afford as much interest as anything in the city. 


especiallj^ as this is the only example of a city gateway 
of the early period that has yet heen brought to light 
in India. At present, the digging is not sulliciently 
advanced to make the disposition of the defences 
entirely clear, but it already seems evident that the 
main gateway must have been masked on its oiiter side 
by a barbican, and that the barbican was pierced by 
a second gateway set at right angles to the maui one. 
To the west of the gate and against the inner face of 
the wall is a range of su.bstantially built rooms, 
which we may assume to have been occupied by the 
guard, and on the opposite side of the High Street 
are the remains of one of the ramps by which the 
defei^ders could mount o]\ to the wall. Immediately 
inside, as well as outside, the gateways the gradient 
must always have been a steep one, and, as the level 
of the ground inside the city rose, it became steeper 
and steeper, necessitating the construction of a deep 
drain to carry oi? the rush of water. During tlie 
latest period of the city's occupation this northern 
entrance appears to have l^een closed, and the 
remains of various later walls and apparentlj- of stujias 
also, can be seen in the actual gateway. 



Temple. From Sirkap we now proceed due northwards 
through the suburbs known as " Kachcha kot " to 
the two lofty mounds in Jandial, between which the 
ancient road to Hasan Abdal and Peshawar probably 
ran. The mound to the east of the road, which then 
rose to a height of some 45 feet above the surrounding 
fields, was superficially examined by Gen. Cunningham 
in 1863-64, and at a depth of 7 or 8 feet below the 
surface he discovered some walls of a large building 
which he surmised to be an ancient temple. Cruiously 
enough, the General was quite correct in believing 
that an ancient temple lay concealed in this mound, 
but the walls which he himself unearthed belonged 
to a comparatively late structure of the mediseval 
epoch. The ancient temple which has now been laid 
bare was foimd at a depth of 8 or 9 feet still lower 

The position of this temple is a very commanding 
one, standing as it does on an artificial mound some 
25 feet above the surrounding countr}' and facing 
the north gate of the city of Sirkap. Its length, 
including the projection in front of the portico to the 
back wall, is 158 feet, and excluding the peristyle, a 



LlLi U LJ]: 


10 20 30 FEET 


little over 100 feet. Its plan is unlike that of any 
temple yet known in India, but its resemblance to 
the classical temples of Greece is striking (PL XVIII). 
The ordinary Greek peripteral temple is surrounded 
on all sides by a peristyle of colamns and contains a 
pronaos or front porch, a nax}s or sanctuary, and, 
at the rear, an opistJiodonios or back porch, known 
to the Eomans as the posticum. In some temples, 
such as the Parthenon at Athens or the Temple of 
Artemis at Ephesus, there is an extra chamber 
between the sanctuary and the back porch, which in 
the case of the Parthenon was called the " Parthenon " 
or chamber of the virgin goddess Athene. In the 
newly excavated temple at Jandial the plan is 
almost identically the same. In place of the usual 
peristyle of columns is a wall pierced at frequent 
intervals by large windows which admitted ample 
light to the interior, but at the main or southern 
entrance of the temple are two Ionic columns in antis, 
i.e., between pilasters, which received the ends of the 
architrave passing above them. Corresponding to 
them on the further side of a spacious vestibule is 
another pair of similar columns in antis. Then comes, 
just as in Greek temples, the pronaos leading through 
a broad doorway to the naos, while at the back of the 
temple is another chamber corresponding to the opis- 
thodomos. The only essential difference in plan between 
this and a Greek temple is that, instead of an extra 
chamber between the opisthodomos and the sanctuary, 
■we have at .laiulial a solid mass of masonry, the founda- 
tions of which are carried down over 20 feet below 
the floor of the temple. From the depth of these 


foundations it may safely be concluded that this mass 
of masonry was intended to carry a lieavy super- 
structure, which, apparently, rose in the form of a 
tower to a height considerably greater than that of 
the rest of the temple. Access to this tower was 
provided by flights of broad steps ascending from the 
opisthodomos at the rear of the temple and laid 
parallel with the sides of the edifice. Two of these 
flights still exist, and it may be assumed that there 
were at least three more flights above them, probably 
narrowing in width as they ascended above the roof 
of the maiii building. The altitude of this tower 
may be surmised to have been about 40 feet. 

The masonry of the temple is mainly of lime- 
stone and kanjiir, originally faced with plaster, 
patches of which are still adhering to the walls at 
various points. 

The Ionic columns and pilasters, however, are 
composed of massive Ijlocks of sandstone, the bases, 
shafts and capitals being built up in separate drums 
fixed together with square dowels let in the centre, as 
was also the practice in Greek buildings (PL XIX). 
In the construction of columns in Greek temples it 
is well known that a fine joint was obtained by 
gTinding down each drum in its bed. In the case 
of the Jandial temple the same process seems to 
have been followed, the beds of the drums being 
roughly chiselled at the centre and a raised draft 
left at the edge, which was afterwards ground 
dowTi. The base mouldings of these columns are 
not very subtle in their outline, but their capitals 
with their "leaf and dart" and "reel and bead" 

Plate XIX. 

, : ' ■ . ^q 




, . e^ 





mouldings are of quite a pleasing form. In several 
of the column and pilaster bases fractures were caused 
in ancient days, probably by earthquakes, and 
these fractures were repaired by cutting back the 
broken stones to a straight edge and dowelling on a 
separate piece by means of iron pins. 

The wall mouldings in the news or sanctum 
extend round the foot of all four walls, and it is 
obvious from their existence along the north wall 
that originally this wall stood free down to its base. 
At a subsequent date, however, a platform about 3 
ft. 6 in. high, was added on this side of the chamber. 
The door leading from the fwnaos to the naos 
appears to have been of wood bound with iron, of 
which many fragments were found in the charred 
debris strewn over the floor. 

As to the superstructure of this temple, the archi- 
trave, frieze and cornice were of wood and, no doubt, 
of the Ionic order, in keeping with the Ionic character 
of the columns, pilasters, and bold mouldings around 
the base of the walls. Of wood, too, was the roof 
construction ; but the roof could not have been of 
the ridge type usual in Greek temples. Had the roof 
been sloping, tiles must have been used on the outside, 
and some of them must inevitably have been found 
among the fallen debris. But there was not a trace 
of anything on the floor of the temple, except the great 
charred beams of wood, long iron nails, door hinges, 
and a thick layer of clay mixed with masses of plaster 
from the walls and charcoal. It may be concluded, 
therefore, that, save for the tower in the middle of 
the building, the roof of the temple was flat, like the 



roofs of most oriental buildings, and composed of half 
a dozen inches of earth laid over the timbers. 

To what faith this unique temple was dedicated, 
we can only sm'mise. That it was not Bu-ddhist, 
seems patent from the total absence of any Buddhist 
images or other relics among its debris, as well as from 
its unusual plan, which is unlike that of any Buddhist 
chapel that we know of. For similar reasons, also, 
we must rule out the idea that it was Brahmanical 
or Jaina. On the other hand, the lofty tower in the 
middle of the building and immediately behind the 
sanctum is very significant. My o'mi view is that this 
tower was a zihurrat, tapering like a pyramid, and 
ascended in just the same way as the zikurrats of 
Mesopotamia ; and I infer from its presence, as well as 
from the entire absence of images, that the temple 
belonged to the Zoroastrian rehgion. On the summit of 
the tower the faithful would offer their prayers in praise 
of the Smi, Moon and all else which led their thoughts 
to Nature's God ; and in the inner sanctuary would 
stand the sacred fire altar with the dais at the side 
from which the priests would feed it.^ We know that 
the idea of the Assyrian zikurrat was familiar to the 
Persians, and there is nothing more likely than that 
they borrowed its design for their fire temples. Indeed, 
the zihurrat tower at Firuzabad has been thought by 

10/. Dr. J. J. Modi in the Times of India, Aug. 12, 191.5. I 
myself previously took the view that the fire altar was placed on 
the summit of the zilnirrat ; for we know that in Ach^menian times 
the Persians set their fire altars in high places and raised on loftj' 
eubstructures But Dr. Jlodi, the eminent Parsi scholar, doubts 
■whether, amid the cosniopohtan surroundings of Taxila, the fire 
altar could thus have been exposed to view. 


many authorities actually to be a fire altar. More- 
over, in favour of my hypothesis, it must be remem- 
bered that this temple was constructed in the Scytho- 
Parthian epoch, at a time when Zoroastrianism must 
certainly have had a strong foothold at Taxila. 

It is possible that this is the temple described by 
Philostratus in his Lije of ApoUonius, in which he and 
his companion Damis awaited the permission of the 
king to enter the city. " They saw ", ho says, " a 
temple in front of the wall, about 100 feet in length 
and built of shell-hke stone. And in it was a shrine 
which, considering that the temple was so large and 
provided with a peristyle, was disproportionately small, 
but nevertheless worthy of admiration ; for nailed 
to each of its walls were brazen tablets on which 
were portrayed the deeds of Porus and Alexander." 
The words " in front of the wall " define the position 
of the Jandial temple accurately, and the travellers 
coming from the north, would natm'ally wait outside 
the north gate of the city. The description, too, of 
the inner sanctum as disproportionately small is signi- 
ficant ; for this is a specially noticeable featiire of 
the Jandial Temple. On the other hand, the temple 
is considerably more than 100 ft. iu length, 
unless we exclude the peristyle. The words ai'Sou 
/<c/y;^yM2T0'j I take to mean, not " of 'porphyry ", as 
they are translated by Conybeare and other editors, but 
" of stone covered with stucco," shell having been used in 
India from time immemorial for the making of stucco. 

On the second of the two mounds, which lies a StiJpa.s and 
little to the west of the one just described, ^as Monastery in 
another building also of massive proportions and of 



about the same age as the Zoroastrian Temple ; but 
here the superstructure has entirely vanished and there 
remains nothing but a complex of foundation walls. 
Further north, at a distance of about 400 yards from 
the Temple were two more low luounds, designated A 
and B, respectively, in the map (PI. XXIX). In the 
latter, which lies to the east of the former, have been 
unearthed the remains of a medium-sized stupa set in 
the square courtyard of a monastery. The stupa is 
of two periods, having originally been built in the 
Scytho-Parthian epoch, and rebuilt probably in the 
third century of our era. The earlier structure is 
now standing to a height of only a little over 2 ft. 
above the old floor level. It is square in plan, 
with a projecting staircase on its southern face, 
and a spacious relic chamber in the centre. Round 
the base runs a moulding of the usual pattern, and 
above is a series of square pilasters, six on each side 
of the building, which were once surmounted by a 
dei^til cornice. Near the foot of the steps on the 
eastern side is a square plinth, similar to those by 
the side of the shrine in block G in Sirkap. 

Wlien this stiipa and the monastic quarters con- 
nected with it had fallen to decay, another stupa and 
a second series of cells were erected on a different plan 
above their ruins. This later stupa has a circular 
phnth and is constructed of limestone blocks in the 
semi-ashlar style. 

This monument was partly excavated some years 
ago by Sir Alexander Cunningham, who appears to 
have ]">enetrated as far as the later circular structure 
only, which he describes as beinsf 40 feet in diameter 


and which he erroneously identifies with the stupa 
erected by Asolca on the spot where Buddha had 
made an offering of his head (p. 116). Prior to 
Cunningham's excavation the rehc chamber had been 
opened by the villager Nur, who, without being aware 
of the fact, seems to have thrown out the relics 
concealed within ; for in the spoil earth which he 
had left at the side of the stupa, I found a small 
silver casket lenticular in shape, containing a smaller 
one of the same pattern in gold, and in the latter 
a small fragment of bone. The larger vase in which 
these caskets had no doubt reposed, had disappeared. 

The second and smaller mound, which lies within Stupa A. 
a hundred feet of stupa B, is also mentioned by Sir 
Alexander Cunningham as having been opened by the 
villagers and as containing a small ruined " temple." 
In reality it is a stiipa of almost precisely the same 
type as the earlier of the two just described, though 
the masonry and ornamental details are somewhat 
inferior. No relics were found in this stupa, nor did 
the debris vield any minor antiquities of interest. 



Position of To reach the city of Sirsukh we must now retrace 

SiEsuKii. Q^^ steps by way of the Zoroastrian Temple and 

proceed for about a mile and a half along the main 
road to Khanpur. Sirsukh, as already stated/ is the 
most modern of the three cities of Tasila, having 
been founded by the Kushans, probably during the 
reign of the great Emperor Kanishka. The mounds 
which cover the ruins of its southern and eastern 
ramparts, are still clearl}^ visible from the road along- 
side the little Lundi nala, but the northern and western 
walls have almost entirely vanished beneath the level 
of the fields or been destroyed, and on these two sides 
SiESUKH FORTi- it is Only mth difficulty that their line can now be 
Fic-iTioKs. traced. Of the eastern fortifications a short section 

has been exposed to view near the south-east corner of 
the city, and it is these excavations which will be our 
first objective. The wall, which is constructed of 
rough rubble faced with neatly fitting limestone masonry 
of the large diaper type, is 18 ft. 6 in. in thickness, 
and is provided at the base both on its inner and outer 
face ^^ath a heavy roll plinth, which was added after 

1 P. G ante 


the wall Itself hacVbeen completed, in order apparently 
to strengthen its loundatioiis. On the outer face 
of the wall, and separated from each other by intervals 
of about 90 feet, are semi-circular bastions, access 
to the interior of which is provided by a narrow passage 
carried through the thickness of the wall. Both the 
bastions and the wall itself are firrjiished with loop- 
holes, which are placed immediately above the plinth 
referred to, at a height of rather less than five feet above 
the old floor level. In the case of the bastions, these 
loopholes widen towards the outside and are closed 
on the outer face of the M^all with triangular arches which 
give them a singularly western appearance. Beneath 
them, in the interior of the bastions, is a hollow hori- 
zontal chase in the wall, now filled with earth, which 
marks where timbers were once let into the masonry. 
Still lower down (on a level, that is to say, with the 
old floor and opposite the entrance of the bastions) there 
is, in some of them, an aperture which no doubt served 
the purpose of a drain. The floors of the bastions 
were composed of lime concrete containing a large 
admixture of river sand. 

If we compare these fortificatious with those of 
Sirkap, we shall find that they differ from the latter 
in several essential featiu'es. In the first place, they 
are faced with the large diaper masonry characteristic 
of the early Kushan period instead of the rubble masonry 
characteristic of the Greek and Scythian periods. 
Secondly, they are pierced with loopholes for the use 
of defenders standing on the ground floor. Thirdly, 
the bastions are semi-circular in plan instead of rectan- 
gular, and are hollow within instead of solid. In the 


case both of Sirkap and of Sirsukh it may be assumed 
that the bastions were divided, like the bastions of 
later Indian fortresses, into two or more storeys, and 
that the upper storeys were hollow like the lowest 
storey at Sirsukh. In both cases, too, it may be taken 
for granted that the wall was provided with an upper 
terrace and with lines of loopholes corresponding with 
the terrace, from which the defenders could shoot 
down on an attacking force. 

Two other striking features in which the city of 
Sirsukh differs from its predecessor, are its almost 
rectangular plan and its situation in the open valley, 
its builders having manifestly placed more reliance 
on their artificial defences than on any natural 
advantages which the hills might afford them. 
Whether these new features were the outcome of 
developments in military engineering in India itself, or 
whether they were introduced by the foreign invaders, 
the Kushans, from Central Asia or elsewhere, is a ques- 
tion which we have not yet enough data, either 
monumental or literary, for determining. 

The minor finds from the bastions of Sirsukh 
include copper coins of Hermseus and Kadphises I, 
which were recovered on the floor level, an ivory mirror 
handle and a deposit of 59 copper coins of Akbar the 
Great, which were unearthed near the surface. 
ToFKiAN. Ill thie interior of Sirsukh conditions are less favour- 
able for digging than in Sirkap ; for, on the one hand, 
nearly all the area enclosed within the walls is low- 
lying and abundantly irrigated, with the result that 
the ancient remains are buried deeper beneath the 
alluvial soil than in Sirkap ; on the other hand, the 


few mounds which rise here and there among the culti- 
vated fiekls aud which doubtless mark the sites of 
relatively important structures, are now occupied 
by graves and ziarats or modem villages, such as those 
of Find Gakhra and Pindora, and, while any disturbance 
of the graves or ziarats is out of the question, the 
removal of the modern dwellings could only bo effected 
at an inordinate cost. The oidy spot inside the city 
where excavation has been started is between the villaoe 


of Tofkian^ and the mound of Pindora, where dressed 
stones and pottery had often been turned out by the 
plough and where there was promise of ancient struc- 
tures being found relatively near the surface. Here 
a complex of buildings has been revealed which may 
eventually prove of considerable interest. It com- 
prises parts of two courts, a larger one to the west and 
a smaller one to the east, with a series of chambers 
disposed around them and a connecting passage 
between. As to the extent ajid plan of this building, 
all that can bo said at present, is that the principle 
on which it is designed, namely, the principle of 
the open court flanked by rows of chambers, is the 

1 C/. C. S. E., Vol. II, p. 1:33, and Vol. V, p. 67. Cunningham de- 
scribes the find in one of the mounds near this village of a copper 
plate inscription dated in the year 78. But Cunningham himself 
is in doubt as to whence precisely tho inscription came. In 
one place ho says that its findspot is situated nearly a thou.sand 
yards to tho south-west of Sirsukh, while in another he speaks of 
its having come from the village of Tofkiaii inside the city, the 
reason for tliese conflicting statements being that the copper plate 
in question was discovered, not by Cunningham Iiimsclf, but by a 
bhishli, named Nur, who gave different aecount.s of it at diSerent 
times, and whose versions, therefore, are altogetlicr unreliable. 
The remains which I have so far excavated near tlie village belong 
to a much later date than this inscription. 


same as that followed in the older structures of 
Sirkap ; and, judging by the dimensions and structural 
character of what has been exposed, it may be 
surmised that the whole will prove to be an elaborate 
and extensive building not unlike the one whii.h 
I " have designated " the palace " in the earher 
city. In one respect, however, there is a notice- 
able difference between these two structures. In 
contradistinction to the other buildings in that city, 
the palace of Sirkap is provided with doorways leading 
from the courtyard to the ground floor chambers, 
as well as from one chamber to another ; here, in 
Sirsukh, there is no evidence of any such openings in 
the walls, and we are left to infer that access to the 
gromid floor chambers was provided, as it was pro- 
vided also in the ordinary houses of Sirkap, by steps 
descending from the first floor rooms. 

It remains to add that the wall stretching across 
the north side of the court appears to be the founda- 
tion of a raised plinth which probably supported a 
pillared verandah ; that the masonry of the walls is 
semi-ashlar above the ground level, but apjwoximates 
to rubble below ; and that in some of the chambers 
were found large earthenware jars of the type usually 
employed for the storage of grain, oil or water, as well 
as coins of Kadphises II, Kanishka and Vasudeva and 
various other minor antiqiuties. 


Buddhist stupa Between one and two hundi'ed yards from the 
AKD jiuKAsTEKY. jigith-east comcr of Sirsukh and on the pathway to 


the village of Gfarhl Sayyadan was a group of four 
small mounds, known locally as Lalchak. These 
four mounds covered the remains of a Buddhist settle- 
ment containing stQpas, shriues and monasteries, 
which appear to date from about the fourth century 
A.D. Most striking among them is the small monas- 
tery in the northern part of the site (PL XX). It 
is standing to a height of between seven and eight 
feet above the ground level and contains a vestibule 
in front, four chambers for habitation leading off from 
it, and a small apartment on the west side, which pro- 
bably served as a storeroom. The entrance is in the 
middle of the southern side and is approached by a 
flight of four stone steps. A second stairway, also of 
stone, led from the western end of the vestibule to the 
upper storey, which has now perished. No doubt the 
walls of the upper storey were of stone, but to judge 
by the large quantities of ashes, burnt earth, iron nails, 
clamps and the like which were found in the debris, 
the fittings and upper floor must have been of timber, 
and the roof of the same material mth the usual covering 
of earth. The date which I have assigned above to 
this monastery, is based upon the style of its masonry ; 
for no minor antiquities to which a definite date can 
be assig-ned, were found associated with its foundations 
or walls. On the other hand, in the debris a few feet 
below the surface of the mound there came to light 
four silver coins belonging to the White Huns, which 
suggest, though they do not prove, that the building 
had been burnt out and buried from view before the 
sixth or seventh century of our era. Indeed, it is 
quite possible that it was not in occupation for more 


than a few decades ; for, though the stairway is worn 
and smoothed by the passage of many feet, half a 
century would be quite enough time to account for this. 
Among the minor antiquities recovered from this 
site were an ornamental tris'Fda and rosettes of copper, 
a bronze finger ring, iron pickaxe and arrow-head, 
and a necklace of cornelian, garnet, calcedony, crystal, 
malachite, lapis-lazuli, gold, pearl, and shell beads. 
SiuPA I. To the south-east of the monastery just described 
and about forty yards distant from it is a stupa standing 
in the middle of a rectangular compound. ^ It is square 
in plan with a broad flight of steps on its northern 
side. The pilasters which adorn the plinth are of the 
Corinthian order but stunted and decadent, and 
surmounted, as is usual in later structures, by Hindu 

Inside the court of this stupa and to the right and left 
of the entrance were the remains of two small chapels, 
of which the one to the east comprised a square sanctum 
for the image with a portico in front, paved with stone 
slabs. What was left of the other was too fragmentary 
to be made out with certainty. The design no less 
than the construction of this and the following building 
indicates that they were coeval with the neighbouring 
monastery described above, and it is therefore of 
interest to record tha.t a pit sunk in the rubble core 
of this stupa yielded 140 tokens and coins of various 
issues, including some of the city of Taxila, others 
of Antialcidas, Kadphises II, Indo-Sasanian Kings 
and Samantadeva. It is very unlikely that these 

• This compound as well as the two small chapels mcntionetl 
below and Stupa II, have been covered in again. 





coins, Ijang haphazard in the earth, were intentionally 
deposited there when the stiipa was erected. Their 
presence may be accounted for on the assumption that 
the debris used for the core of the stupa was brought 
from one of the ancient city sites where such coins are 
found in abundance. 

Between Stupa I and the monastery were the remains Stupa IL 
of a second stupa, of which nothing was left standing 
except its semi-ashlar foundations. Fortimately, the 
relic-deposit in the centre of these foundations had not 
been disturbed. The earthenware pot in which it 
reposed had been brols:en by the weight of the 
debris above, but the deposit itself was intact and 
proved to consist of thirty beads of gold, garnet, ruby, 
jasper and shell. The relic bone, which had presum- 
ably accompanied them, had crumbled to dust. 


Of the great stiipa of Badalpur, near the village 
of Bhera, there is little that need be said. In its 
construction, and doulitless also in its design, it re- 
sembled the Bhallar and Kunala stupas, and must have 
been one of the most imposing monuments at Taxila ; 
but it has suffered iiiuch fiom the spoliation wrought 
by treasure seekers in the past, and apart from its 
massive plinth, which measures over 80 ft. in length 
by 20 in. height, there is little enough left of its former 
grandeur. On the north and soutli sides of the stupa 
are two rows of chambers with narrow verandahs in 
front, which served as chapels for images , and about 
70 yds. to the east are the buried remains of a spacious 


The style of the masonry coupled with the finds of 
coins, which belonged almost exclusively to the Kushan 
Kings Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva. betoken 
the latter half of the third century A.D. as the proba- 
ble date when these structures were erected. 



Visitors to Taxila who do not wish to make the 
round of all the excavations, will find it convenient to 
omit the remains at Tofkiau, Lalchak and Badalpur, 
which are of secondary interest only, and to proceed 
direct from the fortifications of Sirsukh to the two 
groups of Buddhist buildings at Mohra Moradu and 
Jauliaii, which in many respects are the best preserved 
and the most striking monuments of their kind in the Position ojc 
North-West of India. The first of these two groups Mohra Moradu. 
lies about a mile to the south-east of the city of Sirsukh 
and is situated in a small glen at the back of the village 
of Mohra Moradu. Here, as one goes eastward, the 
slopes begin to be noticeably greener ; for the wild 
oUve and sonattJia shrub grow freely among the rocks, 
and the rugged gorge of Meri, through which the path- 
v.-ay ascends to the monuments, is singularly picturesque. 
Iu3' ^ the glen — or it might better perhaps be termed a 
cup in the hills — an oblong terrace was constructed 
by the Buddhist builders, and side by side on this 
terrace was erected a stupa and a monastery of com- 
manding size, the former at its western, the latter 
at its eastern end. When iirst discovered, both 



monastery and stupa were buried in a deep accu- 
mulation of detritus from the surrounding hills, the 
only part of the structures visible to the eye being 
about 5 feet of the ruined dome of the stiipa, which in 
years gone by had been cut in twain by treasure hunters 
in search of the relics and, like the Dharmarajika stupa, 
sadly damaged in the process. Beneath this accu- 
mulation, however, both buildings proved to be re- 
markably well preserved, standing actually to a height 
of between fifteen and twenty feet and still retaining 
many admirably executed reliefs in stucco on their 
walls (PI. XXI). 
Stupa I. In point of architectural design there is nothing 
specially remarkable about this stupa, nothing to dis- 
tinguish it from other memorials of a like character 
which were erected in the third and fourth centuries 
of our era. Thanks, however, to its protected position 
in the hills and other fortunate circumstances, many of 
the stucco reliefs with which its walls were decorated and 
which in other cases have almost entirely perished, are 
here tolerably well preserved ; and, though their colour- 
ing has mostly disappeared, they suffice to give us a 
much better idea than we could otherwise have got, of 
how these monmnents looked when they first emerged 
from the hands of their bvailders. Apparently, the whole 
surface of the structure up to the top of the drum was 
covered with figures ; for there are groups of Buddhas 
and Bodhisattvas, both standing and seated, in the 
bays between the pilasters (PI. XXII), and on 
the face of the pilasters themselves are series of 
Buddhas ranged one above the other. On the drum, 
again, above the berm the same figures are repeated 

Plate XXI. 






on a smaller scale, and on each side of the steps was 
a continuous row of figures disposed in decreasing sizes 
beneath the raking cornice, just as they might have 
been in the pedimental groups of a classical temple. 
In point alike of style and technique the standard 
attained by the artists who modelled these reliefs is a 
high one. What strikes one most, perhaps, about the 
figures and particularly about those in the bays on the 
south side of the plinth, is their life and movement 
combined with their dignified composure. This life and 
movement is specially evident in some of the attendant 
Bodhisattvas, the swish of whose robes, with the limbs 
delicately contoured beneath them, is wonderfully 
true and convincing. Delicate, too, and singularly 
effective are the hovering figures which emerge from 
the background to the sides of the Buddhas, as if they 
wore emerging from the clouds. Yet another point that 
arrests the attention, is the highly successful minner 
of portraying the folds of the drapery, the technical 
treatment of v.'liich accords with the best Hellenistic 
traditions and demonstrates most accurate observation 
on the part of the artists. ^ 

Among the many detached heads, found round the 
base of this stupa and now preserved in the local 
museum are several which are in an unusually good 
state of preservation. Over the surface is a fine slip 
apparently applied before the final definition was 
given to the features. The face is left white, but the 

' In Gireek sculpture of the best period the mass of the material 
was chiselled away and the folds left, as it were, in relief ; in Roman 
and decadent Greek work labour was saved at the expense of truth 
by merely grooving out the folds from the mass of the material. 



lips, edges of nostrils, edges and folds of eye-lids, edge 
of hair, folds of neck and ear-lobes are picked out in 
red, and the hair itself is coloured grey black. 

Stupa II. On the south side of the steps of this stupa is a 

smaller monument of the same character. It is of the 
same date and constructed and decorated in much the 
same manner as the larger edifice, but only a few 
fragments of the stucco reliefs have survived on the 
south and west sides. 

Monastery The monastery connected with these stupas is as 
interesting as the stupas themselves. In addition to 
the usual open rectangular court it comprises also 
several spacious chambers at the eastern side. The 
entrance to the rectangular court is on the north and 
is approached by a broad flight of steps with a landing 
at the top leading into a small portico. On the west 
wall of the portico is an arched niche containing a 
remarkably well preserved group of figoires in high 
relief, namely, Buddha in the centre and four attendant 
worshippers on either side. 

Passing from the portico into the interior of the 
monastery we find ourselves in a spacious court with 
27 cells ranged on its four sides. In the middle of 
the court is a depression about two feet deep with 
steps descending into it on each of its four sides, 
and at its south-east corner, a square platform which 
once supported the walls of a chamber. Round 
about this depression and at intervals of five feet 
from each other, is a series of stone slabs, the upper 
surface of which is level with the rest of the court. 
These slabs acted as bases to the pillars of a broad 

Plate KXII. 



verandah which was constructed mainly of wood/ and 
which besides shading the fronts of the ground-floor cells 
served also to provide comimmication with the cells on 
the upper storey. The eaves of the verandah no doubt 
projected beyond the pillars which supported it, so as 
to discharge the rain water into the depression in 
the middle of the court, whence it could be carried off 
by a covered drain. The height of the lower storey 
was about twelve feet, as is proved by the ledge and 
row of socket holes, evidently intended for the timbers 
of the first floor, in the back walls of the cells on the 
south side. Access to the upper floor was obtained, 
not as might have been expected, near the entrance 
portico, but by way of two flights of steps in one of the 
cells on the south side of the building. On the western 
and southern sides of the court all the cells are provided 
with windows ; on the northern side windows were not, 
perhaps, so necessary, as the light admitted through 
the cell doors would be brighter ; and on the eastern 
side they were impracticable, inasmuch as there were 
other chambers at the back of the cells. The windows, 
placed at a height of about eight feet from the ground, 
are somewhat narrower at the top than at the bottom, 
and contract considerably towards the outside. lu 
some of the cells, but not in all, there are small 
niches, apparently for lamps, hke those in the monastery 
at Lalchak and in the one adjoining the Kunala stupa. 
The interiors of the cells occupied by the monks 
were covered, like the rest of the monastery, with a 
coating of plaster, but were probably destitute of any 

' The wood construction is evidenced by the mass of charcoal, 
iron fittings, etc., found in the debris. 



decoration. In the verandahs, on the other hand, 
the wall appears to have been relieved with colours 
and the wood work was no donbt carved and painted 
or gilded, while the courtyard was further beautified 
by effigies of the Buddha of superhuman size set on 
pedestals in front of the cells, or by groups of sacred 
fig-ures, in little niches in the walls. Of the larger 
effigies, remains of seven have survived round about 
the quadrangle, but only three of these are even toler- 
ably well preserved. In each of these cases there is a 
particular interest attaching to the smaller reliefs on 
the front of the pedestals from the fact that they 
illustrate the dresses worn by lay-worshippers at the 
time they were set up, namely, in the fourth or fifth 
century A.D. Of the niches, the best preserved is the 
one in front of cell 4 on the left side of the monastery, 
the group in which depicts the Buddha seated in the 
dhydna-mudrd with attendant figtires to the right and 

A still more valuable discovery than these statues 
or reliefs, is a stupa, almost complete in every detail, 
which was found inside cell No. 9 on the left side of 
the monastery (PI. XXIII). It is standing to a height 
of twelve feet and is circular in plan, its plinth being 
divided into five tiers, with elephants and Atlantes 
alternating in the lowest tier, and Buddhas seated in 
niches alternating with pilasters in the tiers above. 
The core of the stupa is of kaiijur, and the mouldings 
and decorations are of stucco once decorated with 
colours, viz., crimson, blue and yellow, traces of which 
are still visible. The umbrella was constructed in 
sections threaded on to a central shaft of iron, but 

Plate XXIII. 

MdHUA m(ii;aiju monastehy: stufa in cell. 


in the course of ages this shaft had decayed, and the 
umbrella was found lying at the side of the stupa. 
The edges of the umbrellas are pierced with holes 
intended apparently for streamers or garlands. This 
stupa is, I believe, the most perfect one of its kind yet 
discovered in Northern India, and as such possesses a 
very exceptional antiquarian value. 

The chambers on the eastern side of the Monastery 
are reached through a doorway at the back of one of 
the cells. As originally designed, there were four 
chambers, the largest of which, to the north, is distin- 
guished by the presence of four kanjur columns in the 
centre, and presumably served as the " conference 
hall " of the commmiity. To what use the other 
three chambers were intended to be put, there are not 
yet sufficient data for determining, but it may be 
surmised that one of them, probably the middle one, 
was used as a refectory. At a later date — that is, 
some two centuries after the building of the monastery 
— this part of it was considerably altered by adding 
two small closets in the middle chamber and by raising 
the floor of the chamber in the south-east corner by 
some eight feet and constructing therein a reservoir, 
meant apparently for a bath, with a water channel 
leading down into the middle chamber. The two 
closets referred to are of unusual form, one being a 
sort of small rotunda with an entrance on its western 
side, the other rectangular in plan with raised benches 
on two of its sides. Iji appearance the rotunda looks 
more like a well than anything else ; but its walla 
are carried down no deeper than the foundations of 
the monastery, and beneath them there is nothing 


but solid rock. Possibly this and the other closet 
adjoining formed part of the baths of the monastery 
and served as hot and cold chambers. 

It remains to add that the original walls of this 
monastery are in a rather late variety of the large 
diaper style and may be assigned both on this and 
other evidence to about the close of the 2nd -century 
A.D. The additions and repairs Avere in the late 
semi-ashlar style and were executed, as I have 
indicated above, about two hundred years later. Many 
coins of the Kushan kings, Huvishka and Vasudeva, 
were discovered on the floor of the monastery. Among 
other minor antiquities found here was one remarkably 
fine Gandhara statue of the Bodhisattva Gautama (?) 
in almost perfect preservation (PL XXIV), several 
terracotta images of the Buddha which had fallen 
from the niches in the court, and a massive steatite seal 
of the Gupta period belonging to one Harischandra. 

The other group of Buddhist remains is perched 
on the top of a hill some 300 feet in height and situated 
rather less than a mile north-east of Mohra Moradu 
and about half that distance from the village of Jauhan. 
To reach this hill from Mohra Moradu the visitor has 
the choice of two routes : either he may follow the 
narrow track which leads eastward from the 
Mohra Moradu monastery, or he can retrace his steps 
as far as the hamlet of Mohra Moradu and thence follow 
the longer path across the fields. In the former case 
the walk will take about 25, in the latter about 40 

Plate XXIV. 



Tlie monuments in tlie Jauliaii group are more 
highly ornanicutcd and in a still better state of preser- 
vation than those at Mohra Moradu ; for many of them 
had only just been erected and the rest but newly 
repaired and redecorated, when they were overtaken 
by the catastrophe which resulted in their burial. 
On the other hand, the decorations of these buildings 
at Jauliaii is not of so high a quality as those at Mohra, 
Moradu. There is less breadth in the treatment of the 
rehefs, less vitality and movement in the figures, less 
subtlety in their modelling, and less delicacy in their 
teclmique. We shall see presently that there are good 
reasons for believing that the destruction of the 
Buddhist settlement at Jauliaii took place in the fifth 
century A.D. — at the hands, perhaps, of the invading 
Huns ; and, if this date is correct, then the decorations 
on the walls of the stupas can hardly be ascribed to a 
date earlier than about 400 A.D. The reliefs at Mohra 
Moradu may possibly date from a few decades earlier, 
but it is probable that the destruction of both these 
settlements was due to one and the same cause. 

Up to the time of writing the position of the original Stupa Courts. 
entrance into the stijpa couits has not been definitely 
ascertained, but we may assume that it was at the south- 
east corner of the Court. At present the visitor enters 
by way of one of the chapels in the north-west corner 
and finds himself in a large open Cjuadranglc with 
ranges of small cells intended for cult images 
along its sides and five moderate sized stupas, now 
roofed over for the sake of protection but formerly 
standing exposed in the open (PI. XXVI). All these 
stupas have lost their domes and cylindrical drums, 


but their square bases are still adorned with crowds of 
elaborate stucco reliefs disposed along their walls in 
horizontal tiers, and are well worthy of attention. 
Observe, in particular, the Buddha or Bodhisattva 
images ensconced in niches with attendants at their 
sides, and the rows of elephants, lions, or Atlantes 
in a variety of quaint and distorted postures sup- 
porting the superstructure above them ; and observe, 
also, on Stupa D^ the Kharoshthi inscriptions which 
give the titles of the images and the names of their 
donors. Kharoshthi records of any kind are rare in 
India, and these are the first that have been found 
engraved on stucco reliefs. 

All the buildings in this lower court were erected 
at the time when the Main Stupa was repaired and 
redecorated in the dth or 5th century A. D., and it 
will be noticed that the stonework employed in their 
construction is the late semi-ashlar variety. The 
original fabric of the main stiipa itseli, which stands in 
the middle of the upper court, probably dates from 
Kushan times, but the masonry now visible as well as 
the stucco decoration dates from two centuries later. 
On its northern face, a httle to the left of the project- 
ing steps, is a seated Buddha figm'e with a circular 
hole at the navel and an ex-voto inscription in 
Kharoshthi beneath, recording that it was the gift of 
one Eudhamitra, who " delighted in the law " (dliarma). 
The hole at tne navel was intended for a suppliant to 
place his finger in when offering prayers against certain 
bodily ailments. Among the numerous small and richly 
decorated stupas which are ranged in rows around 
the Main Edifice, a special interest attaches to the one 



^ I 




•lAXX Hj-vij 


on the south side which is numbered A" in the plan. 
The relic chamber in this structure was exceptionally 
tall and narrow, and in it was a miniature stupa of 
very remarkable character (PI. XIII b). It stands 3 ft. 
8 in. high and is modelled out of hard lime plaster 
finished with blue and crimson paint and bejewelled 
round the dome with gems of garnet, carnelian, lapis- 
lazuli, aquamarine, ruby, agate, amethyst and crystal, 
cut in numerous shapes and arranged in a variety of 
simple patterns. The workmanship of this curious 
relic casket is undeniably coarse and barbaric, but 
there is a certain quaint charm in its design as well as 
in the bright and gaudy coloiuing of the inlaid gems. 
Down the body of the miniatur'e stupa runs a hollow- 
shaft, at the bottom of which were the relics themselves, 
hidden within a smaller copper-gilt receptacle. Auotlier 
stupa iu the same court which also merits notice, is 
A^-^ on the west side of the main structure. On it are 
engraved several more donative inscriptions in Kha- 
roshthi characters. 

We shall now return to the lower court and make Monastery. 
our Vi'ay to the monastery on its eastern side. Just 
outside and to the left hand of the entrance is a small 
chapel containing a singularly beautiful group of stucco 
figures (PL XXVII). In the centre is seated the 
Buddha in the attitude of meditation (dhydna-mudrd), 
with a standing Buddha to his right and left and two 
attendant figures behind. Of the latter, the one to the 
left carries the fl)'-whisk (cJiaurl), the other is the 
Vajrapani, holding the thunderbolt iu his left hand. 
On the central image are still many traces of the red 
and black paint and of the gold leaf with which it, and 


doubtless the other figures also, were once bedecked. 
A second group of figures to the left of this niche is 
unfortunately much damaged, but the realistic basket 
of fruits and flowers borne by one of the attendants is 
deserving of notice. 

In plan and elevation, the monastery at JauliaS 
though slightly smaller, closely resembled the one at 
Mohra Moradu. There was the same open quadrangle 
with ranges of cells on its four sides ; the same square 
depression in the middle of the quadrangle ; the same 
small chamber, perhaps a bath-room, in the corner of 
the latter ; the same verandah carried on wooden 
pillars ; the same niches for images in front of the 
cells ; the same kind of windows and lamp-niches 
inside them and the same stairway in one of the cells 
ascending to the upper storey. But in a few parti- 
culars this monastery helps to supplement the infor- 
mation acquired on the other site. Thus, some of the 
doorways of the cells are still intact, and we observe 
that they are much lower than might have been ex- 
pected. It should be added, however, that the existing 
doorways belong to the later repair of the building, 
and it may have been that the original entrances of 
the Kushan period were higher. Again, on the northern 
side of the court, the cell immediately to the left of 
the stairway must have served as a shrine, since the 
remains of several burnt clay images, adorned with 
paint and gilding, were found inside it. The entrance 
of this particular cell is reheved by bands of floral 
designs roughly executed, like the images inside, in 
burnt clay ; but in both cases the burning of the clay 
seems to have been caused by the general conflagra- 


[*: ^% 



tion in which the whole monastery was involved during 
the fifth century A.D. Other evidences of this fire 
were also observable in the charred condition of floors 
and walls and in masses of charcoal and burnt timbers 
found in the cells and courtyard. That it took place 
during the fifth century is to be inferred both from 
the style of the sculptures, none of which can be referred 
to a later date than this, and from various minor 
antiquities found in the cells, among which was a 
burnt carnelian seal engraved with the words Sri 
Kulcsvaraddsl in Brahmi characters of the Gupta 
age, and a birch bark manuscript also in Brahmi of 
the same period. The latter, which is the first 
manuscript of the kind to be discovered in any exca- 
vation in India, is unfortunately sadly damaged by 
fire, but it is hoped that its partial decipherment may 
not prove impossible. Among the other antiquities 
found in the monastery were over 200 coins, many 
iron nails, hinges, and other implements, copper orna- 
ments, terracottas and numerous potteries, including 
the several large store jars that are still to be seen in 
some of the cells. 

Bhallae Stupa. 

Another large and important group of Buddhist 
monuments now Ijcing excavated is at the Bhallar 
Stupa, to which reference has been made on p. 60. 
They occupy a commanding position on the last 
spur of the Sarda hill, which bounds the Haro 
Valley on the north, and are situated at the side of 
the Havelian Railway, about 5 miles from Saraikala 


and half a mile north of the Haro river (PL XXVIII). 

The most convenient way to reach it is by means of a 
trolley, which can sometimes be obtained from the 
Sarai-kala Railway Station. The ontward journey, 
which is mainly down hill, takes about 40 minutes, 
the return journey over an hour. 

According to Hsiian Tsang,^ the Bhallar Stupa 
was originally built by the Emperor Asoka to commem- 
orate the spot where Buddha in a previous existence ^ 
had made an offering of his head, but if ever Asoka 
erected a monument here, no trace of it is now dis- 
coverable. The existing stupa dates back no further 
than the third or fourth century of our era. Like 
the Kunala stiipa on the opposite side of the valley, 
it stood on a lofty oblong base, ascended on its eastern 
side by a broad flight of steps. The body of the 
superstructure above this base, consisted, as usual, of 
a drrmi and dome surmounted by one or more um- 
brellas. The drum, which is strikingly high in pro- 
portion to the diameter of the monument, was divided 
into six or seven tiers, diminishing in size from the 
bottom upwards and decorated with rows of decadent 
Corinthian pilasters, friezes and dentil cornices. The 
northern half of the stiipa has entirely fallen and on 
this side the relic chamber, which was set near the top 
of the drum, is now exposed to view. In the court- 

1 Cf. Beal, BuddJdst Records of the Western World, Vol. I, p. 138 

2 Cf. Div. XXII, pp. 311 — 328. In that particular existence 
the Bodliisattva was Chandraprabha, and Taxila was the city 
of Bhadra^ila, uver which ho ruKd. On Ih ■ tpot wheie the 
Bhallar Stujia now stands, there may once have been a Stiipa of a 
hero Chandiapiabha, whose cult was subsequently absorbed into 

Plate XXVIII. 


yard of the stupa numerous chapels and other monu- 
ments are now being excavated, and the massive walls 
of a spacious monastery are just coming to light to 
the east of the comtyard ; but it would be premature 
to speak of these until the digging is more advanced. 
It was in this monastery, says Hsiian Tsang, that 
Kumaralabdha, the founder of the Sautrantika school, 
composed his treatises, and in the courtyard of the 
stupa that a miracle took place not long before his 
time. A woman aiHicted with leprosy came to worship 
at the stupa, and, finding the court all covered with 
litter and dirty, she proceeded to cleanse it and to 
scatter flowers around the building. Thereupon her 
leprosy left her and her beauty was restored. 

Bhie Mound. 

In concluding this description of the ancient monu- 
ments of Taxila, it remains to mention a few finds 
made in the Eliir Mound — the earliest of the throe 
city sites. In this city digging operations have hitherto 
been limited to temporary trial trenches and pits, 
which have been sunk at various points, mainly tov/ards 
the northern end of the site, and then filled in again. 
The remains thus disclosed comprise chambers of 
rough rubble masonry, potteries, terracotta figurines of 
primitive workmanship, coins and jewellery : all, so far 
as they can be dated, belonging to the Maurya epoch. 
The most noteworthy of these finds was a small treasure 
unearthed in the compound of the Archaeological 
Bungalow. It consists of IGO punch-marked corns 
of debased silver, a very fine gold coin of Diodotu.s 


struck in the name of Antiochus II of Syria, a gold 
bangle, a gold pendant in the form of a tiger claw, a 
small gold reliquary and several other pieces of gold 
or silver jewellery, besides a large number of pearls, 
amethysts, garnets, corals and other stones. The gold 
pendant and the little reliquary are especially beautiful 
examples of the goldsmith's craft, the filigree design 
applied to their surface being remarkably delicate and 
refined. The coin of Antiochus and the local punch- 
marked coins point to the latter half of the 3rd cen- 
tury B.C. as the time when this jewellery was hidden 
in the ground, and the gold claw and the reliquary 
(PI. XVI, 12, 13 and 14), which are more worn than the 
other pieces, are probably half a century or so earlier. 
By the side of the jewellery was found what appears 
to be a goldsmith's crucible with a few early Brahmi 
characters stamped on its sides, and, in another chamber 
a narrow well filled with earthenware jars, all of which 
were turned upside down and empty. This well was 
excavated to a depth of some 18 feet, and about 50 
vases were recovered. All these remains belong to 
the period of the Mamya occupation, when the city 
of Taxila was undoubtedly situated on the Bhir Mound. 
As these remains, however, were quite near the surface, 
and as there is an artificial accumulation some 15 or 
20 feet deep below them, there is every hope that 
remains of a much earlier period may be found in the 
lower strata. 



















A. S. R. . . ArelKcnlogical Survey of India, Reports of 

the Director General (Sir Jolm Marshall), 
Parts I and II from 1902. 

Corpus Itiacriptioniim Inclicaritm. 

Archcenlofjical Survey of India, Reports of 
Sir Alex. Cunningham. 

Epigraphia Indica. 

Indian Antie^uary. 

Journal Asiatique. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Beal, Samuel. — See Hiucn Thsang. 

Cunningham, Sik Alex. — Coins of Alexander's successors in the 
East, the Greeks and Indo-Scythians, Part I. — The Greeks of 
Baktriana, Ariana and India ; London, 1869. Coi^is of 
Ancient India from the earliest times to the seventh century 
A.D. ; London, 1891. Coins of Mediaeval India from the 
seventh century dotvn to the Muhammadan conquests ; London, 
1894. Arch. Surv. Reports (C. S. 11.), Vols. I, II, V ; Simla, 
Calcutta, 1871, 1875. 

Fa Hien. — A record of Buddhist kingdoms being an account of 
his travels in India, arul Ceylon (A.D. 390-414). Trans, and 
annot. by James Leggo ; Oxford, 1886. 

Feroitsson, Sie J. — History of Indian and Eastern Architecture ; 
2nd ed., London, 1910. 

FoucHER, Alfred. — L'Art greco-bouddhique du Oandhlra ; 
Paris, 1905 ; Etude sur Vlconographie bouddhique de I'lnde ; 
Paris, 1900, 1905. 

Gardner, Percy. — The Coins of Greek and Scythic kings of 
Bactria and India in the British Museum ; Loudon, 1886. 


Gednwedel, Prop. A. — Buddhistische Kunst in Indien ; 2n^i 
ed., Berlin, 1900. English trans, by A. C. Gibson an'l 
J. Burgess ; London, 1901. 

HiUEN Thsang (Hsuan Tsang). — Si-iju-Ia, Buddhist records 
of the Western World. Trcans. by Samuel Beal, Vols, 
III ; London, 1S8L 

Jdtaica or Stories of the BuddM's former births : Engl, trans, 
ed. by E. B. Cowel! ; Vols. I-VII ; Cambridge, 1895-1907. 

Maeshall, iSib John. — Annual Reports of the Director General 
of Archceologi/ ; Calcutta, 1912-13, Pts. I and II ; 1913-14, 
Pt. I ; 1914-15, Pts. I and II ; 1915-16, Pts. I and II. 

McCeindle, J. W. — Ancient India as described by Megasthenes 
and Arrian (From the Indian Antiquaiy) ; Calcutta, 
Bombay, London, 1877. The Invasion of India by 
Alexander the Great as described by Arrian, Q. Gurlius, 
Diodorus, Plutarch and Justin ; Westminister, 1896. 
Ancient India as described in classical literature, being a 
collection of Greek and Latin texts relating to India extracted 
from Herodotus, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Pliny, Aelian, 
Philostratus, etc ; Westminister, 1901. 

PniLOSTKATUs.— y;^e Life of Apollonius of Tyana, with an 
EngUsh translation by P. C. Conybearc ; New York, 1912. 

Rapson, E. J.— Ancient India ; Cambridge, 1914. 

Smith, Yi^cx:^-!.— Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, 
Ciilcutlu ; 1906. Asoka, the Buddhist Emperor of India' 
2nd ed. ; Oxford, 1909. A history of fine Art in hwlia and 
Ceylon ; Oxford, 1911. Early History of India \= E H II 
3rd Ed. ; Oxford, 1914. L i^. i-i 

Whitehead, R. B.~Catalogue of coins in the Punjab Museum 
Lahore ; Oxford, 1914. 

Watters, TaoMAS.~On Yuan Chwang's travels in India Vols 
I and II ; London, 1904-05. 

Wilson, H. K.—Ariana Antiqua ; London, 1841. 

Bra No 4752 E 17 


HiuoiiMCooRAPMio AT tmb Sumvct o* Inou Omen. Caloutta. 


AcEOPOLis.— ((7r.=high city). The citadel or highest part of a 
Greek city, usually situated on an eminence commanding 
the rest of the to^vn. 

Ant^. — Pilasters terminating the side walls of a classic building. 

Apse. — The termination of a building, circular, multangular 

or semi-circular in plan, with a domical or vaulted roof. 

The term was first applied to a Roman basilica. 

Aechitrave. — The beam or lowest division of the entablature, 
which rests immediately on the column. 

Ashlar. — Squared stonework in regular courses, in contra- 
distinction to rubble work. 

Atlantes. — Sculptured figures of men used in place of columns 
01 pilasters, supjiorting or seeming to support a mass above 
them. Female figures used for the same purpose are known 

as Caryatides. 

Baltjster. — A small pillar supporting a handrail or coping, 
the whole being called a balustrade. 

Barbican. — An outwork intended to defend the entrance to a 
castle or fortified town. 

Bodhisattva. — See page 39, footnote 2. 

Canthabus. — A two-handled drinking cup of Greek pattern. 

Cavetto. — A small concave moulding. 

Coring. — The capping of a wall or balustrade. 

Corbel.— A block projecting from a wall to support a superin- 
cvimbent weight. 

Cornice. — In Greek architecture, the highest part of the enta- 
blature resting on the frieze ; any moulded projection which 


crowns the part to which it is afi&xed. Baking cornice^ 
a cornice inclining from the horizontal. 

Cyma. — A moulding of which the profile is a double curve, 
concave and convex. Cyma Eecta, in which the concave 
curve surmounts the convex ; cyma re versa, in which the 
convex surmounts the concave. 

Dado. — The lower part of a wall, when decorated separately. 
Dentil. — Tooth-like ornamental blocks in Ionic and Corinthian 

DiAPEK. — A small pattern repeated continuously over a wall 
surface. Diaper masonry, a distinctive kind of masonry 
illustrated on Plate V. 

En CABtJCHON. — In the form of a carbuncle, i.e., with a convex 
upper surface, in contradistinction to that of a garnet, 
which is facetted. 

Entablature. — In classical architecture, that portion of a 
structure which is supported by the columns, and con- 
sists of the architrave, frieze and cornice. 

Entasis. — A slight swelling in the shaft of a column. 

Fillet. — A small flat moulding having the appearance of a 
narrow band, generally used to separate curvilinear mould- 

Ekieze. — That part of the entablature which is between the 
architrave and cornice, usually enriched with figures or 
other ornaments. 

Feoktality. — A term applied to archaic statues, which are 
so rigidly and formally fashioned, that an imaginary plane 
drawn through the top of the head, nose, backbone, breast- 
bone and navel, divides the figure into two perfectly sym- 
metrical halves. 

Glyptic. — Pertaining to the art of engraving. 

Intaglio. — An engraved figure sunk into the face of a gem : 
the reverse of a cameo, which is in relief. 

Jatak.^, The. — A Pali work containing 550 stories about the 
previous births of Gautama Buddha, who, according to 
the Buddhist belief, had been born in all created forms, 
as man, god and animal, before he ai'.peared on earth as 
the son of Suddhodana. 


KANjiTp.._The local name of a soft limestone. 
KhAroshthI.— A script derived from Aramaic ; it was in vogue 

in the North- West of India between B.C. 300 and 400 A.D. 
Mahabharata.— The great Sanskrit Epic of India, the theme 

of which IS the war between the sons of Kuru and the 

sons of Pandu. It oonsiats of 18 books and ia commonly 

attributed to the sage Vyasa. 
Nandipada.— ' Footprint of Nandi,' a device frequently found 

on ancient coins and supposed to represent the footprint 

of a bull. 

Ogee.— A moulding or arch, of which the curve resembles the 
cyma reversa (q.v.). 

Pediment. — The triangular termination of the roof of a classic 

temple; in Gothic architecture called the "gable." 
Peeipteral. — An edifice surrounded by a range of columns. 
Peristyle. — A range of columns surrounding a court or temple. 
Pilaster. — A square pillar projecting from a wall. 

Pkadak.shina. — A ceremonial act performed by walking round 
a stiipa or other sacred edifice from left to right. 

Prakrit. — The vernacular dialect of ancient India. The vari- 
ous forms of Prakrit are closely allied to literary Sanskrit. 

Pyxis. — A Greek jewel box. 

Repousse. — A style of ornamentation in metal, raised in relief 
by hammering from behind. 

RiDGE-EOOF. — A raised or peaked roof. 

Rococo. — A debased variety of ornament, in which tho decora 
tive devices lack good taste and meaning. 

Sat!. — {Skr.). A widow who immolates herself on tho funeral 

pyre of her husband. 
Sateap. — (Kshatrapa) Viceroy or Governor of a province. The 

title was originally a Persian one. 
Scotia. — A concave moulding used principally in the bases 

of columns and walls. 
Soffit. — The underside of any architectural member. 
Steatite. — A stone commonly known as soap-stone. 
Stupa.— See p. 35, footnote 1. 


ToRANA. — A gateway of Indian design. See p. 29, footnote 1. 

Torus. — A convex moulding used principally in the bases of 

Tkiratna. — {Skr.) ' Three jewels.' A trident-like device used 
to symbolise the trinity of Buddhism. See p. 41, footnote 1. 

Ukifacial. — A term used of archaic statuary in the round 
which is conceived by the sculptor in one aspect only, 
in contradistinction to the plurifacial statuary of developed 
art, which is conceived simultaneously in all its aspects, 
i.e., in its three dimensions. 

USHNi.'^HA. — See p. 44, footnote 1. 

Vajrapani. — (Skr.) 'Bearer of the thunderbolt.' An attendant 
on the Buddha, whose identity is uncertain. 

Vishnu Ptjr.Ina. — One of the 18 Puranas, which deal with 
creation, with the genealogies of gods and patriarchs and 
with the dynasties of kings. The dynastic history 
given in the Vi>ihnu Purana extends to the rise of the 
Imperial Guptas in the 4th century A.D. 

Volute. — The scroll or spiral in Ionic and Corinthian capitals.